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Concept: French language

229

The land planarian Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963 or “New Guinea flatworm” is a highly invasive species, mainly in the Pacific area, and recently in Europe (France). We report specimens from six additional countries and territories: New Caledonia (including mainland and two of the Loyalty Islands, Lifou and Maré), Wallis and Futuna Islands, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Puerto Rico, and Florida, USA. We analysed the COI gene (barcoding) in these specimens with two sets of primers and obtained 909 bp long sequences. In addition, specimens collected in Townsville (Australia) were also sequenced. Two haplotypes of the COI sequence, differing by 3.7%, were detected: the “World haplotype” found in France, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Singapore, Florida and Puerto Rico; and the “Australian haplotype” found in Australia. The only locality with both haplotypes was in the Solomon Islands. The country of origin of Platydemus manokwari is New Guinea, and Australia and the Solomon Islands are the countries closest to New Guinea from which we had specimens. These results suggest that two haplotypes exist in the area of origin of the species, but that only one of the two haplotypes (the “World haplotype”) has, through human agency, been widely dispersed. However, since P. manokwari is now recorded from 22 countries in the world and we have genetic information from only 8 of these, with none from New Guinea, this analysis provides only partial knowledge of the genetic structure of the invasive species. Morphological analysis of specimens from both haplotypes has shown some differences in ratio of the genital structures but did not allow us to interpret the haplotypes as different species. The new reports from Florida and Puerto Rico are firsts for the USA, for the American continent, and the Caribbean. P. manokwari is a known threat for endemic terrestrial molluscs and its presence is a matter of concern. While most of the infected territories reported until now were islands, the newly reported presence of the species in mainland US in Florida should be considered a potential major threat to the whole US and even the Americas.

Concepts: Pacific Ocean, Australia, French language, Melanesia, Oceania, New Caledonia, Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna

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The Austronesian settlement of the remote island of Madagascar remains one of the great puzzles of Indo-Pacific prehistory. Although linguistic, ethnographic, and genetic evidence points clearly to a colonization of Madagascar by Austronesian language-speaking people from Island Southeast Asia, decades of archaeological research have failed to locate evidence for a Southeast Asian signature in the island’s early material record. Here, we present new archaeobotanical data that show that Southeast Asian settlers brought Asian crops with them when they settled in Africa. These crops provide the first, to our knowledge, reliable archaeological window into the Southeast Asian colonization of Madagascar. They additionally suggest that initial Southeast Asian settlement in Africa was not limited to Madagascar, but also extended to the Comoros. Archaeobotanical data may support a model of indirect Austronesian colonization of Madagascar from the Comoros and/or elsewhere in eastern Africa.

Concepts: Africa, Southeast Asia, Human migration, Indian Ocean, French language, Madagascar, East Africa, Comoros

85

Five classical designations of sickle haplotypes are made on the basis of the presence or absence of restriction sites and are named after the ethno-linguistic groups or geographic regions from which the individuals with sickle cell anemia originated. Each haplotype is thought to represent an independent occurrence of the sickle mutation rs334 (c.20A>T [p.Glu7Val] in HBB). We investigated the origins of the sickle mutation by using whole-genome-sequence data. We identified 156 carriers from the 1000 Genomes Project, the African Genome Variation Project, and Qatar. We classified haplotypes by using 27 polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with rs334. Network analysis revealed a common haplotype that differed from the ancestral haplotype only by the derived sickle mutation at rs334 and correlated collectively with the Central African Republic (CAR), Cameroon, and Arabian/Indian haplotypes. Other haplotypes were derived from this haplotype and fell into two clusters, one composed of Senegal haplotypes and the other composed of Benin and Senegal haplotypes. The near-exclusive presence of the original sickle haplotype in the CAR, Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa is consistent with this haplotype predating the Bantu expansions. Modeling of balancing selection indicated that the heterozygote advantage was 15.2%, an equilibrium frequency of 12.0% was reached after 87 generations, and the selective environment predated the mutation. The posterior distribution of the ancestral recombination graph yielded a sickle mutation age of 259 generations, corresponding to 7,300 years ago during the Holocene Wet Phase. These results clarify the origin of the sickle allele and improve and simplify the classification of sickle haplotypes.

Concepts: Natural selection, French language, Sickle-cell disease, Sickle, Linkage disequilibrium, Central African Republic, Cameroon, African Union member states

39

Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is the most common reason for antibiotic prescription in adults. Antibiotics are often inappropriately prescribed for patients with ARTI. This article presents best practices for antibiotic use in healthy adults (those without chronic lung disease or immunocompromising conditions) presenting with ARTI.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Bacteria, Pulmonology, Medical terms, Antibiotic, French language

31

Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and © percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion.

Concepts: Nutrition, Africa, Milk, Burkina Faso, French language

28

BACKGROUND: Gabapentin and pregabalin are widely used as antineuropathic pain drugs. Their use is also associated with the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), mainly neuropsychiatric. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study ‘serious’ and/or ‘unexpected’ adverse reactions associated with pregabalin and gabapentin. STUDY DESIGN: We studied ADRs reported to the French Pharmacovigilance System occurring between 1995 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: For each ADR associated with gabapentin or pregabalin, we noted year, patient age and sex, type of adverse reaction, as well as the imputability score. Reporting rate of serious ADRs for gabapentin and pregabalin was estimated with regard to data of use (obtained from the French National Health Insurance Fund) using the defined daily dose. A global and descriptive analysis of the adverse reactions for each drug is presented. Secondly, details of deaths and ADRs with an imputability score of at least ‘probable’ or ‘likely’ were presented. RESULTS: Overall, 1333 cases were recorded (725 related to gabapentin, 608 related to pregabalin), mainly neuropsychiatric ADRs. Among the 22 deaths recorded, 8 were related to gabapentin in obstetrical situations. Other less well-documented ADRs were identified, such as hepatitis associated with gabapentin and haematological ADRs associated with pregabalin. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the prevalence of neuropsychiatric ADRs associated with gabapentin or pregabalin. A high rate of death occurred with gabapentin in an obstetrical context. New adverse reactions have been noted, such as haematological or hepatic adverse reactions associated with pregabalin and gabapentin, respectively.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Death, Medical statistics, Drug, Adverse drug reaction, French language, Benzodiazepine, French people

28

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the psychometric properties of a French Canadian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-FC) in a large population of primary care patients in Quebec, Canada; (2) conduct a transcultural validation of the original HADS in a subsample of English-speaking patients; (3) explore HADS properties in subgroups with or without multimorbidity. METHODS: A sample of 14,833 adults recruited in 64 primary care clinics completed the HADS, including 3,382 patients at elevated risk of mental disorders that also completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Simplified (CIDIS). The HADS' internal consistency and discriminant validity were assessed, its factor structure was evaluated, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were undertaken to evaluate its case finding abilities. RESULTS: The HADS-FC had good reliability (Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.79 to 0.89 depending on language version and subscales) and discriminant validity, and a two-factor structure reflecting anxiety and depression factors. Results were similar in patient subgroups with or without multimorbidity. Optimal cut-off values were calculated: HADS: ≥16 (sensitivity 62%, specificity 77%), HADS-A: ≥10 (sensitivity 66%, specificity 73%) and HADS-D:≥7 (sensitivity 65%, specificity 75%). LIMITATIONS: Our cohort selection process and use of the CIDIS as a gold standard may have contributed to the limited case-finding performance of the HADS-FC. CONCLUSIONS: The HADS-FC and English HADS presented good psychometric properties in primary care patients, including patients with and without multimorbidity. However, its performance as a screening instrument in these settings with patients of varying clinical profiles requires more scrutiny.

Concepts: Type I and type II errors, Assessment, Psychometrics, Reliability, French language, Cronbach's alpha, Primary care, French people

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Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent disorder in the intensive care unit. Many etiologies should be searched, and therapeutic approaches differ according to these different causes. However, no guideline exists regarding optimum practices for these situations in critically ill patients. We present recommendations for the management of thrombocytopenia in intensive care unit, excluding pregnancy, developed by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Societe de Reanimation de Langue Francaise (SRLF), the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP) and of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Study Group (GEHT) of the French Society of Haematology (SFH). The recommendations cover six fields of application: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis; diagnostic approach; therapeutic aspects; thrombocytopenia and sepsis; iatrogenic thrombocytopenia, with a special focus on heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; and thrombotic microangiopathy.

Concepts: Medicine, French language, Belgium, Louisiana

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To validate the diagnostic accuracy of a non-invasive prenatal test for detecting trisomies 13, 18 and 21 for a population in Germany and Switzerland.

Concepts: European Union, Cytogenetics, Europe, Germany, Switzerland, French language, German language, Alps