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Concept: French fries

508

 To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension.

Concepts: Potato, Potato chip, French fries

30

Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Saturated fat, Trans fat, Unsaturated fat, Take-out, French fries, Fast food

24

Rösti, a fried potato product, is a large contributor to acrylamide exposure locally in Switzerland. A survey of 55 dishes prepared by 51 restaurants in the city of Zurich showed that the average rösti contained 702 µg/kg acrylamide. By analysing the content of reducing sugars in the potatoes used for frying, it is shown that with simple measures, the exposure to acrylamide could easily be reduced by factor two or more, while even improving the culinary experience. Though rösti is a typical dish for the German speaking areas in Switzerland, the result may be of general interest for fried potato products which are popular in large areas of central Europe.

Concepts: Vitamin C, Germany, Switzerland, Potato, German language, Acrylamide, Central Europe, French fries

8

The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, United States, Food, Fruit, Vegetable, Soft drink, French fries

7

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. METHODS: We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate-specific antigen level). RESULTS: Compared with <1/week, there was a positive association with PCa risk for intake ≥1/week of French fries (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.69), fried chicken (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62), fried fish (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.66), and doughnuts (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 for fried fish). CONCLUSION: Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Cancer, Prostate cancer, Food, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Prostate-specific antigen, French fries, Fast food, Fish and chips

5

PURPOSE: To assess whether adolescents purchasing food at a restaurant marketed as “healthy” (Subway) purchase fewer calories than at a competing chain (McDonald’s). METHODS: We studied 97 adolescents who purchased a meal at both restaurants on different days, using each participant as his or her control. We compared the difference in calories purchased by adolescents at McDonald’s and Subway in a diverse area of Los Angeles, CA. RESULTS: Adolescents purchased an average of 1,038 calories (standard error of the mean [SEM]: 41) at McDonald’s and 955 calories (SEM 39) at Subway. The difference of 83 calories (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20 to 186) was not statistically significant (p = .11). At McDonald’s, participants purchased significantly more calories from drinks (151 vs. 61, p < .01) and from side dishes (i.e., French fries or potato chips; 201 at McDonald's vs. 35 at Subway, p < .01). In contrast, they purchased fewer cups of vegetables at McDonald's (.15 vs. .57 cups, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: We found that, despite being marketed as "healthy," adolescents purchasing a meal at Subway order just as many calories as at McDonald's. Although Subway meals had more vegetables, meals from both restaurants are likely to contribute to overeating.

Concepts: Statistics, United States, Food, Arithmetic mean, Normal distribution, Potato, French fries, McDonald's

4

Efforts are under way to identify successful strategies to reduce long-term childhood obesity risk, such as ways to improve diet quality. To identify foods and beverages associated with excess weight gain, we used cohort data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We quantified the associations between changes in or levels of consumption of twenty-seven food and beverage groups and excess weight gain in three-year periods among youth ages 7-13. When we considered all dietary factors and physical activity levels simultaneously, we found that foods with the largest positive associations with three-year excess weight gain were fat spread (butter or margarine), coated (breaded or battered) poultry, potatoes cooked in oil (French fries, roasted potatoes, and potato chips), coated fish, processed meats, other meats, desserts and sweets, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Foods associated with weight loss were whole grains and high-fiber cereals. These results provide evidence for targeting specific food and beverage groups in efforts to influence weight outcomes.

Concepts: Cohort study, Nutrition, Obesity, Fat, Butter, Meat, Potato, French fries

4

IMPORTANCE Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. OBJECTIVE To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children’s meals by McDonald’s and Burger King (BK) restaurants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald’s and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. EXPOSURE Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald’s and BK. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. RESULTS Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald’s and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children’s recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald’s image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P < .001). The percentage correct was not associated with age in either case. Conversely, although french fries were not featured in either image, 80 children (81%) recalled french fries after viewing the BK advertisement. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Of the 4 healthy food images, only depiction of apples by McDonald’s was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Food, Hamburger, French fries, Fast food, Burger King, McDonald's

4

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to celebrity endorsement in television (TV) food advertising and a nonfood context would affect ad libitum intake of the endorsed product and a perceived alternative brand. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 181 children from the UK aged 8-11 years viewed 1 of the following embedded within a cartoon: (1) a commercial for Walker’s Crisps (potato chips), featuring a long-standing celebrity endorser; (2) a commercial for a savory food; (3) TV footage of the same endorser in his well-known role as a TV presenter; or (4) a commercial for a nonfood item. Children’s ad libitum intake of potato chips labeled “Walker’s” and “supermarket brand” was measured using ANOVA. RESULTS: Children who viewed the endorsed commercial or the TV footage of the endorser outside of a food context consumed significantly more of the Walker’s chips compared with children in other groups. These children did not reduce their intake of the supermarket brand product to compensate; thus, the endorser effect contributed to overconsumption. CONCLUSION: The influence of a celebrity endorser on food intake in children extends beyond his or her role in the specific endorsed food commercial, prompting increased consumption of the endorsed brand even when the endorser has been viewed in a nonfood context. Our data suggest that the ubiquitous nature of celebrity media presence may reinforce unhealthy eating practices in children, although research with other endorsers is needed.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Eating, Food, Potato, Potato chip, French fries, Lay's

3

What happens if a fast-food restaurant chain lowers the calories in a children’s meal bundle (CMB), mainly by reducing the portion size of French fries? This study examines how such changes may influence within-meal selections. Specifically, do lower-calorie changes lead to within-meal calorie compensation?

Concepts: Calorie, French fries, Fast food, Fast food restaurant