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Concept: Franklin D. Roosevelt


It is widely reported that partisanship in the United States Congress is at an historic high. Given that individuals are persuaded to follow party lines while having the opportunity and incentives to collaborate with members of the opposite party, our goal is to measure the extent to which legislators tend to form ideological relationships with members of the opposite party. We quantify the level of cooperation, or lack thereof, between Democrat and Republican Party members in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1949-2012. We define a network of over 5 million pairs of representatives, and compare the mutual agreement rates on legislative decisions between two distinct types of pairs: those from the same party and those formed of members from different parties. We find that despite short-term fluctuations, partisanship or non-cooperation in the U.S. Congress has been increasing exponentially for over 60 years with no sign of abating or reversing. Yet, a group of representatives continue to cooperate across party lines despite growing partisanship.

Concepts: United States, President of the United States, United States Constitution, Washington, D.C., Democratic Party, United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, Franklin D. Roosevelt


Despite substantial financial contributions by the United States President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) since 2006, no studies have carefully assessed how this program may have affected important population-level health outcomes. We utilized multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate the association between introduction of PMI and child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Concepts: United States, President of the United States, Supreme Court of the United States, United States Constitution, Barack Obama, Lyndon B. Johnson, Democratic Party, Franklin D. Roosevelt


On Sept 29, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of the first volunteer in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The origins of the study are closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. In this Review we describe the events leading to the foundation of the Framingham Heart Study, and provide a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Death, Myocardial infarction, Cardiovascular disease, Franklin D. Roosevelt


As Zika virus continues to spread, decisions regarding resource allocations to control the outbreak underscore the need for a tool to weigh policies according to their cost and the health burden they could avert. For example, to combat the current Zika outbreak the US President requested the allocation of $1.8 billion from Congress in February 2016.

Concepts: President of the United States, United States Congress, United States Constitution, Ronald Reagan, Resource allocation, Franklin D. Roosevelt, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton


The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran’s nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This includes creating vital domestic shortages to life-saving medicines, leaving an estimated 6 million Iranian patients with limited treatment access for a host of diseases. Sanctions have also crippled Iran’s domestic pharmaceutical industry, leading to the disruption of generic medicines production and forcing the country to import medicines and raw materials that are of lower or questionable quality.

Concepts: European Union, United States, United Kingdom, United Nations, Republic of China, Franklin D. Roosevelt, United Nations Charter, United Nations Security Council


Many Americans have never known a world without Medicare. For 50 years, it has been a reliable guarantor of the health and welfare of older and disabled Americans by paying their medical bills, ensuring their access to needed health care services, and protecting them from potentially crushing health expenses. However, as popular as Medicare has become, Congress created the program only after a long and deeply ideological struggle that still reverberates in continuing debates about its future. Nor was the Medicare program that was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 30, 1965, identical to the program . . .

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, President of the United States, United States Congress, United States Constitution, Lyndon B. Johnson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Pocket veto


While staying in the White House over Christmas 1941, Churchill developed chest pain on trying to open a window in his bedroom. Sir Charles Wilson, his personal physician, diagnosed a ‘heart attack’ (myocardial infarction). Wilson, for political and personal reasons, decided not to inform his patient of the diagnosis or obtain assistance from US medical colleagues. On Churchill’s return to London, Wilson sought a second opinion from Dr John Parkinson who did not support the diagnosis of coronary thrombosis (myocardial infarction) and reassured Churchill accordingly.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Heart, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Members of the United Kingdom Parliament for English constituencies, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Harry S. Truman


Long Blurb: On September 21st 2016 the United Nations General Assembly convenes in New York, United States to tackle a looming and seemingly inevitable global challenge with the potential to threaten the health and wellbeing of all people: antimicrobial resistance. In an Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors reflect on the challenge of coordinating the response to antimicrobial resistance in order to ensure the viability of current antimicrobials and the development of new therapies against resistant pathogens. Short Blurb: In this month’s Editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors reflect on the upcoming United Nations General Assembly meeting which convenes to discuss the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

Concepts: Microbiology, Malaria, United Arab Emirates, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, World War II, Human Development Index, Franklin D. Roosevelt


The 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy (JFK), experienced chronic back pain beginning in his early 20s. He underwent a total of 4 back operations, including a discectomy, an instrumentation and fusion, and 2 relatively minor surgeries that failed to significantly improve his pain. The authors examined the nature and etiology of JFK’s back pain and performed a detailed investigation into the former president’s numerous medical evaluations and treatment modalities. This information may lead to a better understanding of the profound effects that JFK’s chronic back pain and its treatment had on his life and presidency, and even his death.

Concepts: John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Democratic Party, Marilyn Monroe, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Irish American, Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy assassination


One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women’s roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women’s participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers.

Concepts: Malaria, United States, President of the United States, Federal government of the United States, Gender role, Implementation, Lyndon B. Johnson, Franklin D. Roosevelt