SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Focusing

226

BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker’s license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker’s license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic-the tobacco industry-and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

Concepts: Tobacco, English-language films, Vector space, Proposal, Focusing, Limit, Limit of a sequence, Ryan Reynolds

193

BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker’s license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker’s license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic-the tobacco industry-and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

Concepts: Tobacco, English-language films, Vector space, Proposal, Focusing, Limit, Limit of a sequence, Ryan Reynolds

67

Selective attention to grapheme-phoneme mappings during learning can impact the circuitry subsequently recruited during reading. Here we trained literate adults to read two novel scripts of glyph words containing embedded letters under different instructions. For one script, learners linked each embedded letter to its corresponding sound within the word (grapheme-phoneme focus); for the other, decoding was prevented so entire words had to be memorized. Post-training, ERPs were recorded during a reading task on the trained words within each condition and on untrained but decodable (transfer) words. Within this condition, reaction-time patterns suggested both trained and transfer words were accessed via sublexical units, yet a left-lateralized, late ERP response showed an enhanced left lateralization for transfer words relative to trained words, potentially reflecting effortful decoding. Collectively, these findings show that selective attention to grapheme-phoneme mappings during learning drives the lateralization of circuitry that supports later word recognition. This study thus provides a model example of how different instructional approaches to the same material may impact changes in brain circuitry.

Concepts: Psychology, Attention, Educational psychology, Word, Focusing, Orthography, Reading

30

To describe the prevalence of statin utilisation by people aged over 50 years in Ireland and the factors associated with the likelihood of using a statin, focusing particularly on those using statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Focusing

28

The concept/phenomenon of valve prosthesis/patient mismatch (VP-PM), described in 1978, has stood the test of time. From that time to 2011, VP-PM has received a great deal of attention but studies have come to varying conclusions. This is largely because of the determination of prosthetic heart valve area [called effective orifice area index (EOAi)] by projection rather than by actual measurement, variable criteria to assess severity of EOAi and the timing of determination of EOAi. All prosthetic heart valves have some degree of VP-PM which must be placed in a proper clinical perspective. This can be done by determining its effects on function and outcomes. For mortality one needs to focus especially on severe/critical degree of VP-PM and determine the cause of death was due to VP-PM. For the period “beyond 2011” a road map is suggested that will have uniformity of assessment of VP-PM and a focusing on the important goals of VP-PM.

Concepts: Focusing, Artificial heart valve, Valves, Heart valve

25

In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Carbon, Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Carbon nanotube, Composite material, Faces, Focusing

18

Ethical analyses of disorders of consciousness traditionally focus on residual awareness. Going one step further, this paper explores the potential ethical relevance of the unawareness retained by patients with disorders of consciousness, focusing specifically on the ethical implications of the description of the unconscious provided by recent scientific research.

Concepts: Scientific method, Science, Research, Consciousness, Ethics, Focusing, Aristotle

10

Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of working-class organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Disability, Wales, Focusing, Cardiff, Socialism, South Wales, Newport

6

Mindfulness-based interventions are effective at improving symptoms of sexual dysfunction in women. The mechanisms by which mindfulness improves sexual function are less clear. The main objective of our study was to investigate the impact of a mindfulness task on sexual response in women. Forty-one women (mean age = 27.2, SD = 5.6) participated in two laboratory sessions that each included two erotic films and one attention task that were presented in counterbalanced order. Both attention tasks consisted of a six-minute audio recording of either a modified body scan, focusing on genital arousal sensations (mindfulness condition), or a visualization exercise. Subjective and genital sexual arousal were measured continuously during stimulus presentation. The mindfulness task led to greater subjective and lower genital arousal. The agreement of subjective and genital sexual arousal (i.e., concordance) was greater in the mindfulness condition. Trait mindfulness was related to lower sexual arousal but also greater sexual concordance in women. Mindfulness-based interventions that encourage women to focus on physical arousal sensations in the here and now may be associated with women’s improved sexual function by enhancing feelings of sexual arousal during sexual activity and by increasing concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal.

Concepts: Better, Sexual intercourse, Improve, Activity, Human sexuality, Orgasm, Focusing, Sexual arousal

6

Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed.

Concepts: Time, Psychology, Life, Attention, Economics, Ethics, Focusing, Immanuel Kant