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Concept: Floor


We measured size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range at two different types (4- and 3-way) of TIs in Guildford (Surrey, UK) at fixed sites (∼1.5 m above the road level), sequentially at 4 different heights (1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.7 m), and along the road at five different distances (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 m). The aims were to: (i) assess the differences in PNCs measured at studied TIs, (ii) identify the best fit probability distribution curves for the PNCs, (iii) determine vertical and horizontal decay profiles of PNCs, (iv) estimate particle number emission factors (PNEFs) under congested and free-flow traffic conditions, and (v) quantify the pedestrian exposure in terms of respiratory deposition dose (RDD) rates at the TIs. Daily averaged particle number distributions at TIs reflected the effect of fresh emissions with peaks at 5.6, 10 and 56 nm. Despite the relatively high traffic volume at 3-way TI, average PNCs at 4-way TI were about twice as high as at 3-way TI, indicating less favourable dispersion conditions. Generalised extreme value distribution fitted well to PNC data at both TIs. Vertical PNC profiles followed an exponential decay, which was much sharper at 4-way TI than at 3-way TI, suggesting ∼40% less exposure for people at first floor (4.7 m) to those at ground floor around 4-way TI. Vertical profiles indicated much sharper (∼132-times larger) decay than in horizontal direction, due to close vicinity of road vehicles during the along-road measurements. Over an order of magnitude higher PNEFs were found during congested, compared with free-flow, conditions due to frequent changes in traffic speed. Average RDD rate at 4-way TI during congested conditions were up to 14-times higher than those at 3-way TI (0.4 × 10(11) h(-1)). Findings of this study are a step forward to understand exposure at and around the TIs.

Concepts: Measurement, Radioactive decay, Traffic, Debut albums, Building, Storey, Floor, Thirteenth floor


In a survey of 5 hospitals, we found that floors in patient rooms were frequently contaminated with pathogens and high-touch objects such as blood pressure cuffs and call buttons were often in contact with the floor. Contact with objects on floors frequently resulted in transfer of pathogens to hands.

Concepts: Health insurance, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Pharmacy, Floor, Flooring


Several earlier studies have shown the presence of more dust and allergens in carpets compared with non-carpeted floors. At the same time, adverse effects of carpeted floors on perceived indoor air quality as well as worsening of symptoms in individuals with asthma and allergies were reported. Avoiding extensive carpet use in offices, schools, kindergartens and bedrooms has therefore been recommended by several health authorities. More recently, carpet producers have argued that former assessments were obsolete and that modern rugs are unproblematic, even for those with asthma and allergies. To investigate whether the recommendation to be cautious with the use of carpets is still valid, or whether there are new data supporting that carpet flooring do not present a problem for indoor air quality and health, we have reviewed the literature on this matter. We have not found updated peer reviewed evidence that carpeted floor is unproblematic for the indoor environment. On the contrary, also more recent data support that carpets may act as a repository for pollutants which may become resuspended upon activity in the carpeted area. Also, the use of carpets is still linked to perception of reduced indoor air quality as well as adverse health effects as previously reported. To our knowledge, there are no publications that report on deposition of pollutants and adverse health outcomes associated with modern rugs. However, due to the three-dimensional structure of carpets, any carpet will to some extent act like a sink. Thus, continued caution should still be exercised when considering the use of wall-to-wall carpeted floors in schools, kindergartens and offices, as well as in children’s bedrooms unless special needs indicate that carpets are preferable.

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Indoor air quality, Carpet, Floor, Flooring, Fitted carpet, Rug


This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare with particular focus on lameness, claw lesions (CL) and injuries. The study used 164 gilts housed in groups of 8 from AI to 110 d of pregnancy in pens with concrete (n = 84) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through two parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions and manure on the body (MOB; score 0 to 2) were recorded at AI, 24 to 72 h post-mixing, between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy and 2 wk before farrowing. Claw lesions (score 0 = normal to 3 = severe) were recorded at AI and between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy. The dirtiness and wetness of the floors was scored weekly (score 0 = clean to 4 = >75% of the pen soiled/wet). Data from the first and second parities were analyzed separately. Sows were categorized as non-lame (score ≤ 1) or lame (score ≥ 2). Median (Me) scores were calculated for CL, body and limb lesions and were classified as ≤ median or > median lesion scores. Sows on rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of lameness during both parities (P<0.01) compared with sows on concrete. They also had an increased risk of scores > median for toe overgrowth (Me = 2 and Me = 3 in the first and second parity respectively) and heel sole crack (HSC; Me = 3) during both parities (P<0.01) and for cracks in the wall (CW; Me = 4) and white line damage (WL; Me = 4; P<0.01) in the first and second parity respectively. There was a reduced risk of lameness in sows with scores > median for HSC (P=0.05) in the first parity and WL (Me = 3; P<0.01) and CW (Me = 3; P<0.05) in the second parity. Wounds (Me = 3) and severe lesions (Me = 0) on the limbs with scores > median were associated with an increased risk of lameness (P<0.01) in the first and second parity respectively. Sows on rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of scores > median for swellings (Me = 4) and wounds (P<0.01) during both parities. Pens with rubber slat mats were dirtier than uncovered pens (P<0.01), however, there was no association between MOB and flooring type. There was also no association between body lesion score and flooring type. In this study, claw lesions were not associated with an increased risk of lameness. Therefore, even though rubber slat mats were associated with an increased risk of claw lesions they improved the welfare of group housed sows by reducing the risk of lameness and limb lesions.

Concepts: Scores, Floor


Living in high-rise buildings could influence the health of residents. Previous studies focused on structural features of high-rise buildings or characteristics of their neighbourhoods, ignoring differences within buildings in socio-economic position or health outcomes. We examined mortality by floor of residence in the Swiss National Cohort, a longitudinal study based on the linkage of December 2000 census with mortality and emigration records 2001-2008. Analyses were based on 1.5 million people living in buildings with four or more floors and 142,390 deaths recorded during 11.4 million person-years of follow-up. Cox models were adjusted for age, sex, civil status, nationality, language, religion, education, professional status, type of household and crowding. The rent per m(2) increased with higher floors and the number of persons per room decreased. Mortality rates decreased with increasing floors: hazard ratios comparing the ground floor with the eighth floor and above were 1.22 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.28] for all causes, 1.40 (95 % CI 1.11-1.77) for respiratory diseases, 1.35 (95 % CI 1.22-1.49) for cardiovascular diseases and 1.22 (95 % CI 0.99-1.50) for lung cancer, but 0.41 (95 % CI 0.17-0.98) for suicide by jumping from a high place. There was no association with suicide by any means (hazard ratio 0.81; 95 % CI 0.57-1.15). We conclude that in Switzerland all-cause and cause-specific mortality varies across floors of residence among people living in high-rise buildings. Gradients in mortality suggest that floor of residence captures residual socioeconomic stratification and is likely to be mediated by behavioural (e.g. physical activity), and environmental exposures, and access to a method of suicide.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Death, Sociology, Building, Storey, Floor, High-rise


Compliant flooring, broadly defined as flooring systems or floor coverings with some level of shock absorbency, may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in older adults; however, a lack of synthesized evidence may be limiting widespread uptake.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Floor, Flooring


The rotation sequence-order differs from a gymnast to another according to the draw at the time of the qualifying competitions in men’s artistic gymnastics. Only the six best gymnasts start on the floor exercises, the others could start on any of the other five apparatuses. It has been demonstrated that some gymnastics events are physiologically less taxing than others; hence some gymnasts could experience lower and/or higher levels of cardiovascular and metabolic stress compared to others, depending on the apparatus they start with. In this regard, the objective of this investigation was to compare cardiovascular and metabolic variables between two different types of Olympic rotation-order; one began with the floor exercises and the other began with the pommel horse. Six elite male gymnasts took part in this investigation. Heart rates, synchronized with real-time video acquisition, as well as capillary lactate concentration following each apparatus routine were monitored. Cardiovascular and metabolic stresses were significantly higher when gymnasts started their rotation with the pommel horse in all apparatuses except the pommel horse. The floor exercises' score was significantly affected when gymnasts ended up their competition on this apparatus. As a conclusion, starting gymnastics' competition on the floor exercises implicates less cardiovascular and metabolic stress associated with better performance compared with the other rotation order. As a matter of fact, best gymnasts who start on this apparatus could have a slight advantage compared with the other athletes.

Concepts: Gymnastics, Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, Olympic sports, Gymnastics at the 2008 Summer Olympics, Floor, Artistic gymnastics, World Gymnastics Championships, Pommel horse


Previously, we reported the effect of rearing conditions (plastic floors and air quality) on carcass injury development of broiler chickens at thermal comfort. In this study, the same rearing conditions were tested at thermal stress. The birds were reared in 2 climatic chambers, and the experiment followed a completely randomized design with one factor, flooring material: wood shaving or perforated plastic. The birds were divided into 16 experimental pens, being 8 females and 8 males. The studied parameters were the same as the previous study (ammonia concentration, carbon dioxide, performance, carcass yield, and variability, and scores of hygiene, gait and chest, and hocks and footpad lesions). Higher ammonia (15 ppm vs. 4 ppm) and carbon dioxide (1,000 ppm vs. 850 ppm) concentration was seen at d 42 for the wood shavings floor as compared to the perforated plastic floor, respectively. Regarding gender, males had better performance than females at 42 d of age on both floor types. Males reared on wood shavings showed a higher meat production (29.049 kg/m2) than females (24.700 kg/m2). There were observed breast lesion incidences of 10.4% (score 1) in males reared on the plastic floor, as well higher incidence of hock injury and footpad dermatitis. Chickens reared on plastic flooring showed better hygiene than chickens reared on wood shavings. Our findings revealed that the use of perforated plastic flooring in a heat stress situation can improve the air quality (less CO2 and NH3 concentration) and bird cleanliness. On the other hand, chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions in the breast, hock, and footpad. We conclude that the use of plastic flooring in heat stress conditions needs more attention, since chickens are more susceptible to develop lesions on the carcass, being a source of pain, impairing bird wellbeing and causing losses in meat production.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Bird, Carbon, Meat, Yield surface, Floor, Flooring


This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM) studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution) were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

Concepts: Structure, Systems, System, Printing, Inkjet printer, Structural engineering, Floor, Structural health monitoring


A 24-year-old woman escaped a fire by jumping from the first floor of her house onto a temporary greenhouse. She was brought into the emergency department and later treated surgically. Three years after the initial episode a tender lump in her right thigh was found during regular follow-up for her acute myeloid leukaemia, for which she was in remission. This was treated as a suspicious mass due to her haematological history and further imaging was organised. This was later identified as a piece of the greenhouse that she had landed on 7 years previously. It is a common occurrence for foreign bodies to be missed on initial examination. Fortunately the patient recovered well from her physical wounds and, more importantly, remains humorous when reflecting on her almost 7-year long battle with a piece of plastic.

Concepts: Cancer, Patient, Hospital, Hematology, Leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Blood disorders, Floor