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Concept: Flexor pollicis longus muscle


A previous ultrasound study showed inflammation around the extensor pollicis longus tendon and surrounding structures at 6 weeks after manipulation, with or without pin fixation, and immobilization for distal radius fracture. Ultrasound examination after plating of distal radius fracture followed by early active mobilization of the wrist showed a short-lived inflammatory response, evident at 2 weeks but not at 6 weeks, around the extensor pollicis longus tendon (26 wrists examined) and flexor pollicis longus tendon (18 wrists examined). Early active mobilization of the wrist appears to limit the duration of inflammation around these tendons.

Concepts: Flexor digitorum profundus muscle, Carpal tunnel, Flexor pollicis brevis muscle, Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Distal radius fracture, Wrist



Strong evidence indicates that highly repetitive manual work is associated with the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the occupational activities that involves highly repetitive and forceful hand work is manual pipetting in chemical or biological laboratories. In the current study, we quantified tendon displacement as a parameter to assess the cumulative loading exposure of the musculoskeletal system in the thumb during pipetting. The maximal tendon displacement was found in the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon. Assuming that subjects' pipetting rates were maintained constant during a period of 1h, the average accumulated tendon displacement in the FPL reached 29m, which is in the lower range of those observed in other occupational activities, such as typing and nail gun operations. Our results showed that tendon displacement data contain relatively small standard deviations, despite high variances in thumb kinematics, suggesting that the tendon displacements may be useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal loading profile.

Concepts: Variance, Standard deviation, Michigan, Musculoskeletal system, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Flexor pollicis longus muscle


We investigated the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon and median nerve in smartphone users by ultrasonography to assess the effects of smartphone addiction on the clinical and functional status of the hands.

Concepts: Hand strength, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Ulnar nerve, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Carpal tunnel


Impairment in the cervical proprioception and deep flexor muscle function and morphology have been regarded to be associated with chronic neck pain (CNP).

Concepts: Muscular system, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor muscle, Muscle


We report a case of carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger wrist caused by localized amyloidosis. A 37-year-old man, who worked as a manufacturer, presented with a 5-month history of tingling sensation in the three radial fingers of the left hand and a painful click at the volar aspect of the wrist during digital motion. We divided the transverse carpal ligament and detected diffuse tenosynovitis that was especially severe around the flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Histological findings led to a diagnosis of amyloidosis. Localized amyloidosis could thus be a cause of trigger wrist. Systemic amyloidosis may develop in patients with localized amyloidosis; therefore, patients with trigger wrist caused by flexor tenosynovitis should be investigated for the existence of localized amyloidosis, with biopsy of the flexor tenosynovium.

Concepts: Median nerve, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Carpus, Paresthesia, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle, Wrist, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Carpal tunnel


Constructing a lateral key pinch (KP) is a universal aim of any functional upper limb surgery program for tetraplegia. Three stages are required: (1) activating the pinch mechanism by flexor pollicis longus tenodesis to the radius or by tendon transfer to the flexor pollicis longus, (2) simplifying the polyarticular chain, and (3) positioning the thumb column. We compared 2 techniques for accomplishing the latter stage, 1 utilizing arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint (CMC) and 1 that did not require arthrodesis of the CMC.

Concepts: Stage, Carpometacarpal joint, Wrist, Michigan, Adductor pollicis muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Upper limb, Flexor pollicis longus muscle


Linburg-Comstock variation often connecting the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus of the index finger at a different level with significant discrepancy between clinical and cadaveric frequencies reported in the literature. Although this variation is quite prevalent, it is yet frequently unrecognized. The aim of this meta-analysis is to generate more accurate weighted frequency values of the Linburg-Comstock variation and to look for possible association with ethnicity, laterality, gender and side.

Concepts: Finger, Carpal tunnel, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Index finger, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle


Reconstruction of a tendon defect is a challenging task in hand surgery. Delayed repair of a ruptured flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon is often associated with tendon defect. Primary repair of the tendon is often not possible, particularly after debridement of the unhealthy segment of the tendon. As such, various surgical treatments have been described in the literature, including single-stage tendon grafting, 2-stage tendon grafting, flexor digitorum superficialis tendon transfer from ring finger, and interphalangeal joint arthrodesis. We describe step cut lengthening of FPL tendon for the reconstruction of FPL rupture. This is a single-stage reconstruction without the need for tendon grafting or tendon transfer. To our knowledge, no such technique has been previously described.

Concepts: Ring finger, Muscles of the upper limb, Finger, Hand, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle, Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle, Surgery


In hemiplegic patients with a spastic clenched fist deformity, one of the goals of surgery is to address the hygiene, nursing and appearance problems. Transfer of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), initially described by Braun and colleagues, opens the non-functional hand in these patients. The primary objective of our study was to confirm the effectiveness of this technique for correcting these deformities. The secondary objectives were to demonstrate potential functional gains and to identify potential complications.

Concepts: Flexor pollicis longus muscle, Object, Varus deformity, Raised Fist, Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle, Deformity, Flexor digitorum profundus muscle