SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Flatulence

214

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the influence of diet on abdominal symptoms, anal gas evacuation, intestinal gas distribution and colonic microbiota in patients complaining of flatulence. DESIGN: Patients complaining of flatulence (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=20) were instructed to follow their usual diet for 3 days (basal phase) and to consume a high-flatulogenic diet for another 3 days (challenge phase). RESULTS: During basal phase, patients recorded more abdominal symptoms than healthy subjects in daily questionnaires (5.8±0.3 vs 0.4±0.2 mean discomfort/pain score, respectively; p=<0.0001) and more gas evacuations by an event marker (21.9±2.8 vs 7.4±1.0 daytime evacuations, respectively; p=0.0001), without differences in the volume of gas evacuated after a standard meal (262±22 and 265±25 mL, respectively). On flatulogenic diet, both groups recorded more abdominal symptoms (7.9±0.3 and 2.8±0.4 discomfort/pain, respectively), number of gas evacuations (44.4±5.3 and 21.7±2.9 daytime evacuations, respectively) and had more gas production (656±52 and 673±78 mL, respectively; p<0.05 vs basal diet for all). When challenged with flatulogenic diet, patients' microbiota developed instability in composition, exhibiting variations in the main phyla and reduction of microbial diversity, whereas healthy subjects' microbiota were stable. Taxa from Bacteroides fragilis or Bilophila wadsworthia correlated with number of gas evacuations or volume of gas evacuated, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients complaining of flatulence have a poor tolerance of intestinal gas, which is associated with instability of the microbial ecosystem.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Fundamental physics concepts, Intestine, Flatulence, Plasma, Emergency evacuation, Bacteroides fragilis

189

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is used by patients as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but the evidence on effectiveness is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome in primary care when provided as an adjunct to usual care. METHODS: Design: A two-arm pragmatic randomised controlled trial.Setting: Primary care in the United Kingdom.Patients: 233 patients had irritable bowel syndrome with average duration of 13 years and score of at least 100 on the IBS Symptom Severity Score (SSS).Interventions: 116 patients were offered 10 weekly individualised acupuncture sessions plus usual care, 117 patients continued with usual care alone.Measurements: Primary outcome was the IBS SSS at three months, with outcome data collected every three months to 12 months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between groups at three months favouring acupuncture with a reduction in IBS Symptom Severity Score of -27.43 (95% CI: –48.66 to -6.21, p = 0.012). The number needed to treat for successful treatment (>=50 point reduction in the IBS SSS) was six (95% CI: 3 to 17), based on 49% success in the acupuncture group vs. 31% in the control group, a difference between groups of 18% (95% CI: 6% to 31%). This benefit largely persisted at 6, 9 and 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture for irritable bowel syndrome provided an additional benefit over usual care alone. The magnitude of the effect was sustained over the longer term. Acupuncture should be considered as a treatment option to be offered in primary care alongside other evidenced based treatments.Trial RegistrationCurrent Controlled Trials ISRCTN08827905.

Concepts: Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Statistical significance, Effectiveness, Avicenna, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

185

It is increasingly perceived that gut host-microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. There has been a great deal of interest in the potential clinical and therapeutic implications of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS. However, this theory has generated much debate because the evidence is largely based on breath tests which have not been validated. The introduction of culture-independent molecular techniques provides a major advancement in our understanding of the microbial community in FGID. Results from 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling approaches demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative changes of mucosal and faecal gut microbiota, particularly in IBS. Investigators are also starting to measure host-microbial interactions in IBS. The current working hypothesis is that abnormal microbiota activate mucosal innate immune responses which increase epithelial permeability, activate nociceptive sensory pathways and dysregulate the enteric nervous system. While we await important insights in this field, the microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Existing controlled trials of dietary manipulation, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and non-absorbable antibiotics are promising, although most are limited by suboptimal design and small sample size. In this article, the authors provide a critical review of current hypotheses regarding the pathogenetic involvement of microbiota in FGID and evaluate the results of microbiota-directed interventions. The authors also provide clinical guidance on modulation of gut microbiota in IBS.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Gut flora, Digestive system, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Probiotic

174

Peppermint oil (PO) has shown promise as an IBS therapy, but previous trials have demonstrated variable efficacy and tolerability results.

Concepts: Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Peppermint

150

To determine if potential biomarkers can be used to identify subgroups of people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who will benefit the most or the least from a comprehensive self-management (CSM) intervention.

Concepts: Brain, Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Parasympathetic nervous system

147

Increased intestinal permeability and translocation of gut microbiota from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation predispose patients to various diseases and may be one of the main triggers thereof. The role of microbiota in increased intestinal permeability is under intensive investigation. Here, we studied alterations in the host and increased intestinal permeability as a direct effect of treatment with a bacteriophage cocktail. After 10 days of challenge, the rats showed weight loss, messy hair, and decreased activity. Additionally, they displayed a significantly elevated lactulose:mannitol ratio and the level of circulating immune complexes. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that increased intestinal permeability may be induced by bacteriophages that affect the microbiota.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Bacteria, Heart, Immunology, Artery, Vein, Flatulence

139

A high incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant medical costs. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and diagnostic test results and procedures that exclude other conditions. This study was conducted to estimate the potential cost savings of a novel IBS diagnostic blood panel that tests for the presence of antibodies to cytolethal distending toxin B and anti-vinculin associated with IBS-D.

Concepts: Immune system, Diagnosis, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

105

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.

Concepts: Immune system, Vitamin D, Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

91

Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of psychological therapies for reducing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, no meta-analysis has investigated the duration of these effects. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the immediate, short-term, and long-term efficacy of psychotherapy for reducing GI symptoms in adults with IBS.

Concepts: Time, Systematic review, Gastroenterology, Educational psychology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Meta-analysis, Term

81

Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Nutrition, Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Lactose intolerance