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Concept: Flare


A flaring X-ray source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697 (ref. 1). Two brief flares were seen, separated by four years. During each flare, the flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. There is no associated optical source at the position of the flares, but if the source was at the distance of NGC 4697, then the luminosities of the flares were greater than 10(39) erg per second. Here we report the results of a search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies looking for similar flares. We found two ultraluminous flaring sources in globular clusters or ultracompact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies. One source flared once to a peak luminosity of 9 × 10(40) erg per second; the other flared five times to 10(40) erg per second. The rise times of all of the flares were less than one minute, and the flares then decayed over about an hour. When not flaring, the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries, but they are located in old stellar populations, unlike the magnetars, anomalous X-ray pulsars or soft γ repeaters that have repetitive flares of similar luminosities.

Concepts: Galaxy, Star, Milky Way, Globular cluster, Andromeda Galaxy, Flare, Neutron star, Elliptical galaxy


During pregnancy, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) can experience active disease, which might be influenced by adjustment of treatment around conception. The aim of this study was to identify possible risk factors of disease flares during pregnancy and to evaluate the effect of treatment in pregnant patients experiencing a flare.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, In vitro fertilisation, Implantation, Psoriatic arthritis, Flare


Flares in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are suggested to sometimes spontaneously resolve. Targeted therapy could then entail possible overtreatment. We aimed to determine the flare prevalence in patients who are treated-to-target and to evaluate associations between flares and patient-reported outcomes and radiographic progression.

Concepts: Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Osteoarthritis, Flare


The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Light, Hydrogen, Temperature, Nitrogen, Fireworks, Pyrotechnics, Flare


Objective. The objective of this study was to explore patients' experiences of RA daily life while on modern treatments.Methods. The methods of this study comprised semi-structured interviews with 15 RA patients, analysed using inductive thematic analysis.Results. Four themes suggest patients experience life with RA along a continuum from RA in the background to the foreground of their lives, underpinned by constant actions to maintain balance. Living with RA in the background shows patients experience continuous, daily symptoms, which they mediate through micromanagement (mediating the impact of RA on daily life), while learning to incorporate RA into their identity (redefining me). RA moving into the foreground shows patients experience fluctuating symptoms (unwelcome reminders) that may or may not lead to a flare (trying to make sense of fluctuation). Dealing with RA in the foreground shows how patients attempt to manage RA flares (trying to regain control) and decide to seek medical help only after feeling they are losing control. Patients employ a stepped approach to self-management (mediation ladder) as symptoms increase, with seeking medical help often seen as the last resort. Patients seek to find a balance between managing their fluctuating RA and living their daily lives.Conclusion. Patients move back and forth along a continuum of RA in the background vs the foreground by balancing self-management of symptoms and everyday life. Clinicians need to appreciate that daily micromanagement is needed, even on current treatment regimes. Further research is needed to quantify the level and impact of daily symptoms and identify barriers and facilitators to seeking help.

Concepts: Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Management, English-language films, Personal life, Mediation, Flare, Personal identity


Rates of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain high for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are at risk of flaring after surgery. We aimed to describe rates, characteristics, and risk factors of RA flare within 6 weeks of THA and TKA.

Concepts: Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Hip replacement, Hip, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Knee replacement, Flare


Gas flaring is a prominent source of VOCs, CO, CO2, SO2, PAH, NOX and soot (black carbon), all of which are important pollutants which interact, directly and indirectly, in the Earth’s climatic processes. Globally, over 130 billion cubic metres of gas are flared annually. We review the contribution of gas flaring to air pollution on local, regional and global scales, with special emphasis on black carbon (BC, “soot”). The temporal and spatial characteristics of gas flaring distinguishes it from mobile combustion sources (transport), while the open-flame nature of gas flaring distinguishes it from industrial point-sources; the high temperature, flame control, and spatial compactness distinguishes gas flaring from both biomass burning and domestic fuel-use. All of these distinguishing factors influence the quantity and characteristics of BC production from gas flaring, so that it is important to consider this source separately in emissions inventories and environmental field studies. Estimate of the yield of pollutants from gas flaring have, to date, paid little or no attention to the emission of BC with the assumption often being made that flaring produces a smokeless flame. In gas flares, soot yield is known to depend on a number of factors, and there is a need to develop emission estimates and modelling frameworks that take these factors into consideration. Hence, emission inventories, especially of the soot yield from gas flaring should give adequate consideration to the variation of fuel gas composition, and to combustion characteristics, which are strong determinants of the nature and quantity of pollutants emitted. The buoyant nature of gas flaring plume, often at temperatures in the range of 2000 K, coupled with the height of the stack enables some of the pollutants to escape further into the free troposphere aiding their long-range transport, which is often not well-captured by model studies.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Carbon, Pollution, Air pollution, Global warming, Propane, Flare


Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic inflammatory dermatosis that can affect all age groups. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. In this final section, treatments for flare prevention and adjunctive and complementary therapies and approaches are reviewed. Suggestions on use are given based on available evidence.

Concepts: Inflammation, Medicine, Death, Asthma, Atopy, Atopic dermatitis, Flare


The development of a red, chlorine-/strontium-free pyrotechnic composition which serves as either a strobe or a flare is reported. The observed strobing behaviour of a red-light emitting composition of Mg/LiNO3/hexamine/binder was investigated. Additives like 5-amino-1H-tetrazole and nitrocellulose were used to increase the strobing frequency and achieve constant burning.

Concepts: Ammonia, Flare, Strobe light, Pyrotechnic composition


The need to develop a red-light-emitting pyrotechnic illuminant has garnered interest from the pyrotechnics community due to potential Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations of strontium and chlorinated organic materials. To address these environmental regulatory concerns, the development of lithium-based red-light-emitting pyrotechnic compositions of high purity and color is described. These formulations do not contain strontium or chlorinated organic materials. Rather, the disclosed formulations are based on a non-hygroscopic dilithium high-nitrogen salt which serves as both the oxidizer and red colorant. These formulations are likely to draw interest from the civilian fireworks and military pyrotechnics communities for further development; both of whom have a vested interest in the development of environmentally conscious formulations.

Concepts: Color, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Nitrous oxide, Environmentalism, Fireworks, Environmental protection, Pyrotechnics, Flare