Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Finland


Myiasis associated with migratory dermal swellings and ocular injury due to Hypoderma tarandi is identified in children who had visited reindeer in Norway or Sweden.

Concepts: Sweden, Finland, Sami people


To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores.

Concepts: European Union, Europe, Eastern Europe, France, Western Europe, Finland, Greece, Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics


Nordic combined (NC) is an Olympic winter-sport performed as a ski jumping (SJ) event followed by a cross-country (XC) pursuit race employing the skating style.

Concepts: Cross-country skiing, Finland, Olympic sports, Ski jumping, International Ski Federation, Alpine skiing combined, Winter sport, Nordic combined


Twentieth century warming has increased vegetation productivity and shrub cover across northern tundra and treeline regions, but effects on terrestrial wildlife have not been demonstrated on a comparable scale. During this period, Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) extended their range from the boreal forest into tundra riparian shrub habitat; similar extensions have been observed in Canada (A. a. andersoni) and Eurasia (A. a. alces). Northern moose distribution is thought to be limited by forage availability above the snow in late winter, so the observed increase in shrub habitat could be causing the northward moose establishment, but a previous hypothesis suggested that hunting cessation triggered moose establishment. Here, we use recent changes in shrub cover and empirical relationships between shrub height and growing season temperature to estimate available moose habitat in Arctic Alaska c. 1860. We estimate that riparian shrubs were approximately 1.1 m tall c. 1860, greatly reducing the available forage above the snowpack, compared to 2 m tall in 2009. We believe that increases in riparian shrub habitat after 1860 allowed moose to colonize tundra regions of Alaska hundreds of kilometers north and west of previous distribution limits. The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have likely had pronounced impacts on the structure and function of these shrub communities. These northward range shifts are a bellwether for other boreal species and their associated predators.

Concepts: Deer, Alaska, Canada, Norway, Köppen climate classification, Finland, Moose, Tundra


Northern peatlands can emit large amounts of carbon and harmful smoke pollution during a wildfire. Of particular concern are drained and mined peatlands, where management practices destabilize an array of ecohydrological feedbacks, moss traits and peat properties that moderate water and carbon losses in natural peatlands. Our results demonstrate that drained and mined peatlands in Canada and northern Europe can experience catastrophic deep burns (>200 t C ha(-1) emitted) under current weather conditions. Furthermore, climate change will cause greater water losses in these peatlands and subject even deeper peat layers to wildfire combustion. However, the rewetting of drained peatlands and the restoration of mined peatlands can effectively lower the risk of these deep burns, especially if a new peat moss layer successfully establishes and raises peat moisture content. We argue that restoration efforts are a necessary measure to mitigate the risk of carbon loss in managed peatlands under climate change.

Concepts: Climate, Weather, Soil, Climate change, Netherlands, Ireland, Coal, Finland


While the series of events that shaped the transition between foraging societies and food producers are well described for Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here, we report genome-wide DNA data from 38 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~9500 to 2200 years before present. Our analysis provides genetic evidence that hunter-gatherers settled Scandinavia via two routes. We reveal that the first Scandinavian farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Mesolithic Western hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers during the Early and Middle Neolithic. The arrival of steppe pastoralists in the Late Neolithic introduced a major shift in economy and mediated the spread of a new ancestry associated with the Corded Ware Complex in Northern Europe.

Concepts: Baltic Sea, Sweden, Europe, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, Stone Age, Baltic states



Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800-2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research. However, the development of CW on different chronological and spatial scales has to be evaluated. Examination of the CW burials from southern Germany supports an argument for substantial human mobility in this period. Several burials from gravefields and larger samples from two large cemeteries at Lauda-Königshofen “Wöllerspfad” and at Bergheinfeld “Hühnerberg” contributed the human remains for our study of bone and tooth enamel from the Corded Ware Culture. Our results suggest that Corded Ware groups in this region at least were subsisting on a mix of plant and animal foods and were highly mobile, especially the women. We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies.

Concepts: Europe, Germany, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Central Europe, Finland, Burial, Cemetery


This article describes evidence for contact and exchange among Mesolithic communities in Poland and Scandinavia, based on the interdisciplinary analysis of an ornamented bâton percé from Gołębiewo site 47 (Central Poland). Typological and chronological-cultural analyses show the artefact to be most likely produced in the North European Plain, during the Boreal period. Carbon-14 dating confirms the antiquity of the artefact. Ancient DNA analysis shows the artefact to be of Rangifer tarandus antler. Following this species designation, a dispersion analysis of Early-Holocene reindeer remains in Europe was conducted, showing this species to exist only in northern Scandinavia and north-western Russia in this period. Therefore, the bâton from Gołębiewo constitutes the youngest reindeer remains in the European Plain and south-western Scandinavia known to date. An attempt was made to determine the biogeographic region from which the antler used to produce the artefact originates from. To this end, comprehensive δ18O, δ13C and δ15N isotope analyses were performed. North Karelia and South Lapland were determined as the most probable regions in terms of isotopic data, results which correspond to the known distribution range of Rangifer tarandus at this time. In light of these finds, the likelihood of contact between Scandinavia and Central Europe in Early Holocene is evaluated. The bâton percé from Gołębiewo is likely key evidence for long-distance exchange during the Boreal period.

Concepts: Sweden, Estonia, Western Europe, Central Europe, Finland, Holocene, Poland, Northern Europe


Three-dimensional analysis of the entire sequence in ski jumping is recommended when studying the kinematics or evaluating performance. Camera-based systems which allow three-dimensional kinematics measurement are complex to set-up and require extensive post-processing, usually limiting ski jumping analyses to small numbers of jumps. In this study, a simple method using a wearable inertial sensors-based system is described to measure the orientation of the lower-body segments (sacrum, thighs, shanks) and skis during the entire jump sequence. This new method combines the fusion of inertial signals and biomechanical constraints of ski jumping. Its performance was evaluated in terms of validity and sensitivity to different performances based on 22 athletes monitored during daily training. The validity of the method was assessed by comparing the inclination of the ski and the slope at landing point and reported an error of -0.2±4.8°. The validity was also assessed by comparison of characteristic angles obtained with the proposed system and reference values in the literature; the differences were smaller than 6° for 75% of the angles and smaller than 15° for 90% of the angles. The sensitivity to different performances was evaluated by comparing the angles between two groups of athletes with different jump lengths and by assessing the association between angles and jump lengths. The differences of technique observed between athletes and the associations with jumps length agreed with the literature. In conclusion, these results suggest that this system is a promising tool for a generalization of three-dimensional kinematics analysis in ski jumping.

Concepts: Measurement, Mathematical analysis, Skiing, Finland, Animal locomotion, Jump, Ski jumping, Ski jumping at the Winter Olympics