Countries and cities are likely to enter economic activities that are related to those that are already present in them. Yet, while these path dependencies are universally acknowledged, we lack an understanding of the diversification strategies that can optimally balance the development of related and unrelated activities. Here, we develop algorithms to identify the activities that are optimal to target at each time step. We find that the strategies that minimize the total time needed to diversify an economy target highly connected activities during a narrow and specific time window. We compare the strategies suggested by our model with the strategies followed by countries in the diversification of their exports and research activities, finding that countries follow strategies that are close to the ones suggested by the model. These findings add to our understanding of economic diversification and also to our general understanding of diffusion in networks.
This article concerns the analysis of the Adverse Analytical Findings (AAFs) and the appropriate alterations made during the period 2005-2011, so that the Doping Control Laboratory of Athens (DCLA) obeys the updated World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) List of Prohibited Substances. The % AAFs of the DCLA was compared with those of WADA-Accredited Laboratories. In 2008, the term Atypical Finding was introduced by the WADA representing a reported but inconclusive result. A characteristic example is when a testosterone-to-epitestosterone ratio is >4 followed by a negative gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry result. In a total of about 30,000 athlete samples, 136 athletes were found with an increased testosterone/epitestosterone ratio and 43 with tetrahydrocannabinol metabolite (THCCOOH) of 427 reported AAFs. Twenty-one athletes in total were found positive with methylhexaneamine, the 11 found after a batch of 1000 samples was reprocessed. Besides, there were AAFs below their Minimum Required Performance Level (MRPL). The increasing need for higher detectability imposed new apparatus, e.g., liquid chromatography/quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas that for lowering the capital costs and reporting times led to the unification of the screening method which includes stimulants, diuretics, anabolics and other substances.
We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development.
Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players - journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings - are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same - versus different - journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings.
It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.
The term “obesity paradox” is a figure of speech, not a scientific term. The term has no precise definition and has been used to describe numerous observations that have little in common other than the finding of an association of obesity with a favorable outcome. The terminology has led to misunderstandings among researchers and the public alike. It’s time for authors and editors to abandon the use of this term. Simply labeling counterintuitive findings as the “obesity paradox” adds no value. Unexpected findings should not be viewed negatively; such findings can lead to new knowledge, better treatments, and scientific advances.
To the Editor: The reported 6-month efficacy of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine in Bangladesh (May 5 issue),(1) although seemingly modest, may have profound implications for future use of the vaccine. One-year protection from two doses in India and Bangladesh did not differ significantly from these new results, a finding that suggests that short-term single-dose protection is similar.(2),(3) In cholera outbreaks, a rapid response is crucial, and protection from the first dose (direct and indirect) will drive the effect of reactive vaccination.(4) These findings open the door to rapid provision of a first dose during epidemics, while . . .
Promoting happiness within society is good for health, but could the overpromotion of happiness have a downside? Across 2 studies, we investigate 2 emotion norms associated with an emphasis on happiness-the importance of (a) seeking positive emotion, and (b) avoiding negative emotion-and whether these norms have implications for how people respond to, and seek to regulate, their negative emotional experiences. In Study 1, we used an experimental design to show that emphasizing the importance of happiness increased rumination in response to failure. In Study 2, we drew on cross-sectional evidence to investigate the other side of this equation, finding that emphasizing the importance of not experiencing negative emotional states (e.g., depression and anxiety) was also associated with increased rumination, and that this had downstream consequences for well-being. Together, the findings suggest that the overpromotion of happiness, and, in turn, the felt social pressure not to experience negative emotional states, has implications for maladaptive responses to negative emotional experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record
The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings.
Key Clinical Points Thyroid Nodules Thyroid nodules are common; the majority are benign. Thyroid ultrasonographic characteristics and especially the results of ultrasonographically guided fine-needle aspiration are helpful in determining whether a nodule is likely to be benign or malignant. The risk of cancer is approximately 14% for a thyroid nodule that is interpreted as atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance and approximately 25% for a nodule that is interpreted as follicular neoplasm or possible follicular neoplasm. Such nodules should be considered for molecular analysis. In the absence of growth or suspicious clinical or radiologic findings, thyroid nodules with a benign finding on fine-needle aspiration can be managed by observation. Patients whose fine-needle aspirates are interpreted as “suspicious for malignancy” or as malignant should be referred for a thyroidectomy.