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Concept: Final examination


The aim of this study was to investigate whether advanced simulation parameters, such as simulation exam scores, number of student self-evaluations, time to complete the simulation, and time to complete self-evaluations, served as predictors of dental students' preclinical performance. Students from three consecutive classes (n=282) at one U.S. dental school completed advanced simulation training and exams within the first four months of their dental curriculum. The students then completed conventional preclinical instruction and exams in operative dentistry (OD) and fixed prosthodontics (FP) courses, taken during the first and second years of dental school, respectively. Two advanced simulation exam scores (ASES1 and ASES2) were tested as predictors of performance in the two preclinical courses based on final course grades. ASES1 and ASES2 were found to be predictors of OD and FP preclinical course grades. Other advanced simulation parameters were not significantly related to grades in the preclinical courses. These results highlight the value of an early psychomotor skills assessment in dentistry. Advanced simulation scores may allow early intervention in students' learning process and assist in efficient allocation of resources such as faculty coverage and tutor assignment.

Concepts: Final examination, Completeness, Resource allocation, Skill, Prosthodontics, Fixed prosthodontics, Learning, Education


According to the schema-relatedness hypothesis, new experiences that make contact with existing schematic knowledge are more easily encoded and remembered than new experiences that do not. Here we investigate how real-life gains in schematic knowledge affect the neural correlates of episodic encoding, assessing medical students 3 months before and immediately after their final exams. Human participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while encoding associative information that varied in relatedness to medical knowledge (face-diagnosis vs face-name pairs). As predicted, improvements in memory performance over time were greater for face-diagnosis pairs (high knowledge-relevance) than for face-name pairs (low knowledge-relevance). Improved memory for face-diagnosis pairs was associated with smaller subsequent memory effects in the anterior hippocampus, along with increased functional connectivity between the anterior hippocampus and left middle temporal gyrus, a region important for the retrieval of stored conceptual knowledge. The decrease in the anterior hippocampus subsequent memory effect correlated with knowledge accumulation, as independently assessed by a web-based learning platform with which participants studied for their final exam. These findings suggest that knowledge accumulation sculpts the neural networks associated with successful memory formation, and highlight close links between knowledge acquired during studying and basic neurocognitive processes that establish durable memories.

Concepts: Hippocampus, Cognition, Brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Final examination, Neuroscience, Memory


We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of ‘physician know thyself’ (Workshop 1) and ‘confronting suffering’ (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals.

Concepts: Workshop, Following, Reflection, Final examination, Emergent gameplay, Physician, Health care, Medicine


This study aimed to examine differences in socio-demographics and health behaviour between Belgian first year university students who attended all final course exams and those who did not. Secondly, this study aimed to identify weight and health behaviour related correlates of academic performance in those students who attended all course exams.

Concepts: Final examination, School terminology, Student, University


This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices.

Concepts: Psychology, Mind, Test, Creative problem solving, Final examination, Thought, Problem solving, Educational psychology


Biochemistry and physiology teachers from veterinary faculties in Hannover, Budapest, and Lublin prepared innovative, computer-based, integrative clinical case scenarios as optional learning materials for teaching and learning in basic sciences. These learning materials were designed to enhance attention and increase interest and intrinsic motivation for learning, thus strengthening autonomous, active, and self-directed learning. We investigated learning progress and success by administering a pre-test before exposure to the virtual patients (vetVIP) cases, offered vetVIP cases alongside regular biochemistry courses, and then administered a complementary post-test. We analyzed improvement in cohort performance and level of confidence in rating questions. Results of the performance in biochemistry examinations in 2014, 2015, and 2016 were correlated with the use of and performance in vetVIP cases throughout biochemistry courses in Hannover. Surveys of students reflected that interactive cases helped them understand the relevance of basic sciences in veterinary education. Differences between identical pre- and post-tests revealed knowledge improvement (correct answers: +28% in Hannover, +9% in Lublin) and enhanced confidence in decision making (“I don’t know” answers: -20% in Hannover, -7.5% in Lublin). High case usage and voluntary participation (use of vetVIP cases in Hannover and Lublin >70%, Budapest <1%; response rates in pre-test 72% and post-test 48%) indicated a good increase in motivation for the subject of biochemistry. Despite increased motivation, there was only a weak correlation between performance in final exams and performance in the vetVIP cases. Case-based e-learning could be extended and generated cases should be shared across veterinary faculties.

Concepts: Case, Psychology, Examinations, Motivation, Education, Final examination, Educational psychology


At the time of school-age, the most frequent stress stimuli are related to school environment and educational process. Anxiety may play a big role in coping with stressful situations associated with school load. To approach this issue, we performed a real-life study at school during the classwork. The sample consisted of 36 healthy children aged 10 years, which were divided to low and high trait anxiety group based on the median value of the anxiety score. The investigations were carried out in the classroom during a stress condition (final exams) and non-stress condition (without any exam). In the whole sample, the condition with exam was associated with higher cortisol and lower testosterone concentrations in saliva compared to the condition without exam. The activity of salivary alpha-amylase increased at the end of the exam. Anxious children showed higher concentrations of aldosterone and lower activity of alpha-amylase compared to children with low trait anxiety. Cortisol levels were higher in anxious children in the first morning samples before starting the lessons. Children with high and low trait anxiety did not differ in extraversion, neuroticism, as well as non-verbal intelligence and school success. Thus, the anxious children at school showed a more rapid decrease of anticipatory stress-induced cortisol concentrations, higher aldosterone levels, and lower alpha-amylase activities compared to non-anxious children. These changes, particularly high concentrations of aldosterone in children with high trait anxiety, may have an impact on their psychophysiological development.

Concepts: Final examination, Philosophy of life, Neuroendocrine, Psychology, Anxiety, Neuroticism


In 2 experiments, we assessed age-related suggestibility to additive and contradictory misinformation (i.e., remembering of false details from an external source). After reading a fictional story, participants answered questions containing misleading details that were either additive (misleading details that supplemented an original event) or contradictory (errors that changed original details). On a final test, suggestibility was greater for additive than contradictory misinformation, and older adults endorsed fewer false contradictory details than younger adults. To mitigate suggestibility in Experiment 2, participants were warned about potential errors, instructed to detect errors, or instructed to detect errors after exposure to examples of additive and contradictory details. Again, suggestibility to additive misinformation was greater than contradictory, and older adults endorsed less contradictory misinformation. Only after detection instructions with misinformation examples were younger adults able to reduce contradictory misinformation effects and reduced these effects to the level of older adults. Additive misinformation however, was immune to all warning and detection instructions. Thus, older adults were less susceptible to contradictory misinformation errors, and younger adults could match this misinformation rate when warning/detection instructions were strong. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Final examination, Error, Experiment


Twitter is increasingly used in education. In this article, Twitter was evaluated for its potential to aid veterinary students in their preparation for final examinations. “#VetFinals” revision sessions were facilitated by experts on a variety of topics. The initiative was evaluated through consideration of potential participants, session content and student experiences. In analysis of nine sessions, 52 students participated from eight veterinary schools. During a session, the facilitator tweeted 66 times on average, primarily asking a general question. Students on average tweeted 84 times, mostly in response to facilitators. They also asked novel questions and responded to fellow students. Focus groups and interviews with 11 students suggested that: sessions are useful for preparation/self-testing to succeed in exams; the facilitator and session style impact on learning; the sessions feel like personalized learning; there are elements of safety and exposure leading to some fear of tweeting; peer-learning promotes competition; a community of learners was formed; Twitter has become a part of normal professional life. Whilst not all students will take part in this type of social media use, many found it beneficial. The importance of the facilitator suggests the need for faculty development.

Concepts: Final examination, Examinations, Sentence, Questions, Interrogative word, Education, Question, Twitter


In contextual drug conditioning, the onset of the drug treatment is contiguous with the contextual cues. Evidence suggests that drug conditioning also can occur if there is a discontinuity between the onset of the drug effect and offset of the contextual cues. Here we examine whether post-trial contextual drug conditioning conforms to several Pavlovian conditioning tenets namely: acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Six groups of rats received apomorphine (0.05 or 2.0mg/kg) and vehicle immediately or after a 15min delay following a 5min non-drug exposure to an open-field during three successive days (conditioning phase). The extinction phase occurred on days 4-8, in which all post-trial treatments were vehicle injections. After 2days of non-testing, the final test was performed. The results showed that on the first test day, the activity levels of the 6 groups were statistically equivalent. On test day 2, there were marked differences in activity levels selectively between the two immediate post-trial apomorphine treatment groups. The immediate low dose apomorphine group displayed a reduction in activity and the immediate high dose group an increase in activity relative to their day 1 levels. The activity levels of both vehicle groups and both apomorphine delay groups remained equivalent to their day 1 activity levels. On test day 3, the differences in activity levels between the two immediate post-trial apomorphine groups increased but the activity levels of the vehicle groups and the 15min delay post-trial apomorphine groups remained unchanged. In the extinction phase, the conditioned activity differences between the two immediate post-trial apomorphine groups were gradually eliminated. During the final test, the activity differences between the immediate post-trial apomorphine groups were partially restored, indicative of spontaneous recovery. These findings are consistent with several basic elements of Pavlovian conditioning and are supportive of drug induced trace conditioning.

Concepts: Final examination, Ivan Pavlov, The Final Test, The Final, The Onset, Statistical significance, Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning