Concept: Field officer
Synaesthetic people are probably more numerous than usually thought. This unique sensory phenomenon may concern up to 4% of the general population. Physicians are not very aware of synaesthesias because synaesthetes ignore themselves and most often consider this perceptive faculty as common and not pathological. We report in detail a grapheme-phoneme to colour developmental synaesthesia in a 54-year-old woman. The major contribution of research over the last two decades is also summarized.
Microbiology is experiencing a revolution brought on by recent developments in sequencing technology. The unprecedented volume of microbiome data being generated poses significant challenges that are currently hindering progress in the field. Here, we outline the major bottlenecks and propose a vision to advance microbiome research as a data-driven science.
Although progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical implementation still exist.
Remarkable advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, bioinformatics algorithms and computational technologies have significantly accelerated genomic research. However, complicated NGS data analysis still remains as a major bottleneck. RNA-seq, as one of the major area in the NGS field, also confronts great challenges in data analysis.
Upper airway obstruction occurs commonly after induction of general anaesthesia. It is the major cause of difficult mask ventilation.
Chemically powered micro- and nanomotors are small devices that are self-propelled by catalytic reactions in fluids. Taking inspiration from biomotors, scientists are aiming to find the best architecture for self-propulsion, understand the mechanisms of motion, and develop accurate control over the motion. Remotely guided nanomotors can transport cargo to desired targets, drill into biomaterials, sense their environment, mix or pump fluids, and clean polluted water. This Review summarizes the major advances in the growing field of catalytic nanomotors, which started ten years ago.
BACKGROUND: Poor-quality care during institutional births in low- and middle-income countries is a major contributing factor to preventable maternal and newborn harm, but progress has been slow in identifying effective methods to address these deficiencies at scale. Based on the success of checklist programs in other disciplines, WHO led the design and field testing of the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist-a 29-item tool that targets the major causes of maternal and newborn mortality globally. METHODS: The development process consisted of comprehensive evidence and guideline review, in-person consultation with content experts and other key stakeholders, iterative refinement through ongoing discussions with a wide collaborator network, and field evaluation for usability in 9 countries, primarily in Africa and Asia. Pilot testing in South India demonstrated major improvement in health workers' delivery of essential safety practices after introduction of the program. RESULTS: WHO has launched a global effort to support further evaluation of the program in a range of contexts, and a randomized trial is underway in North India to measure the effectiveness of the program in reducing severe maternal, fetal, and newborn harm. CONCLUSION: A novel checklist program has been developed to support health workers in low-resource settings to prevent avoidable childbirth-related deaths.
The increasing frequency in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules has raised a growing interest in the search for new diagnostic tools to better select patients deserving surgery. In 2014, the major Italian Societies involved in the field drafted a new cytological classification, to better stratify pre-surgical risk of thyroid cancer, especially for the indeterminate category, split into TIR3A and TIR3B subclasses, associated to different therapeutic decisions.
Shallow depth of field is one of the major limitations for integral imaging display. Although there is a series of factors that causes this problem, among them, facet braiding is the major factor. Here, an analysis method of the depth of field based on facet braiding is presented. Simulation and optical experiments are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed analysis method.
Among all biomass constituents, the ashes are major hurdles for biomass processing. Ashes currently have low market value and can make a non-negligible fraction of the biomass dry weight significantly impacting its further processing by degrading equipment, lowering process yield, inhibiting reactions and decreasing products qualities. However, most of the current treatments for deashing biomass are of poor efficiency or industrial relevance. This work is the first report on the use of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) to enhance deashing of biomass from a high ash content green marine macroalga, Ulva sp., using hydraulic pressing. By inducing cell permeabilization of the fresh biomass, PEF was able to enhance the ash extraction from 18.4% (non-treated control) to 37.4% of the total ash content in average, significantly enhancing the extraction of five of the major ash elements (K, Mg, Na, P and S) compared to pressing alone.