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Concept: Femur head


Idiopathic avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone causes significant morbidity in adults although the pathophysiology is unknown. The present treatment options include systemic biphosphonate therapy and local bone drilling decompression, ameliorating the healing process and their by render the weight bearing femur head less vulnerable to collapse. In the present study we demonstrate the involvement of heparanase in AVN and in the acceptable treatments.

Concepts: Inflammation, Present, Healing, Heart, Femur, Avascular necrosis, 2006 albums, Femur head


An increase in interstitial fluid is an expression of bone marrow edema (BME) and osteonecrosis (ON). The exact pathogenetic processes still remain unknown. Treatment options are mainly symptomatic with core decompression as surgical golden standard with immediate pain relief. Recently, it has been shown that intravenous iloprost can be used to achieve a reduction in BME and ON with a considerable improvement in the accompanying symptoms. The effect of intraveneously applied iloprost alone (12 patients) was studied against core decompression alone (12 patients) as well as iloprost following core decompression (12 patients). We could find a significant improvement in HHS, WOMAC score, SF-36 score and VAS 3 months and 1 year after therapeutical intervention in all treatment groups; however, statistically best results were obtained by combination. Concerning the MRI scans, we found a distinct reduction in BME in all groups again favoring the combination. Concerning ON, the results were not as promising as for BME. Intravenous prostacyclin and core decompression as monotherapy are of efficient therapeutical benefit in the treatment of BME, and the combination of both methods, however, seems to be most promising, also in the treatment of ON. Long-term results and higher number of patients are needed for final statements.

Concepts: Bone marrow, Lymphatic system, Avascular necrosis, Diving medicine, Osteochondritis dissecans, Femur head, Epiphysis, Dysbaric osteonecrosis


Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a debilitating disease that involves impaired blood supply to the femoral head and leads to femoral head collapse.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Genetic disorder, Mutation, Blood, Avascular necrosis, Femur head


Avascular necrosis of the femoral head causes significant morbidity and occurs in up to 20,000 people per year. A variety of nonoperative and operative measures have been trialled however a definitive treatment algorithm is yet to be established. Young adults in many cases have undergone multiple surgical procedures in their lifetime with increasing risks of complications. Less invasive techniques may help reduce the number of operations required and positively influence the natural history of the disease process. Our aim was to navigate the literature and examine the results of electrical stimulation of the femoral head in avascular necrosis.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Fiction, Avascular necrosis, Nature, Osteochondritis dissecans, History of science, Femur head


Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is caused by a multitude of etiologic factors and is associated with collapse with a risk of hip arthroplasty in younger populations. A focus on early disease management with the use of stem cells was proposed as early as 1985 by the senior author (PH). We undertook a systematic review of the medical literature to examine the progress in cell therapy during the last 30 years for the treatment of early stage osteonecrosis.

Concepts: Medicine, Cell division, Stem cell, Hip replacement, Hip, Avascular necrosis, Osteochondritis dissecans, Femur head


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with various pathologic conditions and can serve as diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers. This study tried to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs to predict the possible pathomechanisms involved in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).

Concepts: Pathology, MicroRNA, Avascular necrosis, Osteochondritis dissecans, Femur head


Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a devastating condition affecting relatively young patients whereby the femoral head is necrotic, resulting in significant pain, articular surface collapse, and eventual osteoarthritis. This condition has been highly associated with chronic steroid use, alcoholism, and hip trauma, as well as other less common conditions. Without intervention, this condition has a high likelihood of progressing and developing into end-stage osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, ONFH is difficult to diagnose on plain radiographs in the early stages of the disease, and often requires more advanced imaging modalities such as MRI in order to fully assess for early degeneration. Providers, therefore, must have a high index of suspicion when a younger patient presents with hip pain and negative X-rays. Unfortunately, in patients whose femoral heads have already collapsed, joint-preserving procedures are not effective, and total hip arthroplasty remains the most reliable long-term treatment. Multiple treatments have been pursued to address osteonecrosis in patients whose femoral head have not yet collapsed, but the results of these treatments are mixed. The most promising of these interventions to date is core decompression with the use of concentrated bone marrow aspirate to improve the healing potential of the femoral head. Further studies including randomized clinical trials are necessary in order to assess the effectiveness of this therapy, the best possible source of cells and the best method of implantation in order to further improve results in those with pre-collapse ONFH.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Bone marrow, Hip replacement, Hip, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, Avascular necrosis, Femur head


This study aimed to analyze the clinical factors related to the failure of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells grafting (BMMCG) following core decompression (CD) in early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).

Concepts: Bone, Bone marrow, Avascular necrosis, Diving medicine, Osteochondritis dissecans, Femur head, Epiphysis, Dysbaric osteonecrosis


This study was established to investigate the medium-term clinical effect of real-time CT assisted porous tantalum implant for the treatment of ARCO stage I-II non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).

Concepts: Avascular necrosis, Femur head


The aim of the study was to assess the factors influencing the final results of treatment of the femoral head osteonecrosis (ONFH) with core decompression and bone substitute grafting. The special interest was focused on comparison between alcohol- and steroid-induced ONFHs.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Femur, English-language films, Hip, Avascular necrosis, Osteochondritis dissecans, Femur head, Dysbaric osteonecrosis