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Concept: Feeding tube


The aim of the present work is to extensively evaluate the pharmaceutical attributes of currently available riluzole presentations. The article describes the limitations and risks associated with the administration of crushed tablets, including the potential for inaccurate dosing and reduced rate of absorption when riluzole is administered with high-fat foods, and the advantages that a recently approved innovative oral liquid form of riluzole confers on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The article further evaluates the patented and innovative controlled flocculation technology used in the pseudoplastic suspension formulation to reduce the oral anesthesia seen with crushed tablets, resulting in optimized drug delivery for riluzole. Riluzole is the only drug licensed for treating ALS, which is the most common form of motor neurone disease and a highly devastating neurodegenerative condition. The licensed indication is to extend life or the time to mechanical ventilation. Until recently, riluzole was only available as an oral tablet dosage form in the UK; however, an innovative oral liquid form, Teglutik(®) 5 mg/mL oral suspension, is now available. An oral liquid formulation provides an important therapeutic option for patients with ALS, >80% of who may become unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms due to disease-related dysphagia. Prior to the launch of riluzole oral suspension, the only way for many patients to continue to take riluzole as their disease progressed was through crushed tablets. A novel suspension formulation enables more accurate dosing and consistent ongoing administration of riluzole. There are clear and important advantages such as enhanced patient compliance compared with crushed tablets administered with food or via an enteral feeding tube and the potential for an improved therapeutic outcome and enhanced quality of life for ALS patients.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Feeding tube, Electromyography, Frontotemporal dementia, Dosage forms, Riluzole, Dosage form


To establish the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) and force feeding (gavage) practices among children in Mauritania; to investigate factors related to FGM and gavage practices and attitude in Mauritania; and to explore implications related to the protection of children’s rights and welfare.

Concepts: Nutrition, Human rights, Feeding tube, Female genital cutting, Youth rights, Force-feeding


Medication in patients undergoing enteral intubation addresses various challenging issues considering safety and treatment efficiency. Ideally, other routes of administration (i.e. intravenous or intramuscular routes) or especially dedicated formulations should be used. However, in absence of liquid dosage form, tablets or pills must be crushed and suspended in a vehicle before administration. The administration of oral dosage forms by enteral tube is usually performed by the nursing staff facing (i) pharmaceutical relevance of crushing, (ii) loss and concomitant aero-contamination of drug substance (iii) drug-nutriment interactions and (iv) enteral feeding tube clogging. In the present study, different combinations of either open or confined crushing and suspending protocols were compared by taking into account the crushing yield, the stability and granulometry of the solid oral form suspension and finally the extend of aerosol contamination during crushing and suspending. All protocols exhibited comparable crushing efficiency and suspending properties, but significantly higher aerosolisation of tablet particles was observed in both open crushing and suspending protocol. Therefore, both confined crushing and suspending protocol constitutes an efficient, time saving and safe alternative to the absence of available liquid dosage form for intubated patients.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drug, Feeding tube, Route of administration, Pharmaceutical formulation, Routes of administration, Dosage forms, Dosage form


Enteral feeding through gastrojejunal (GJ) tubes is an established method of nutrition for patients with feeding difficulty who do not tolerate intragastric feedings. Literature about the long-term outcome, safety and complications of different GJ tubes and placement methods remains lacking in children. OBJECTIVES:: Our study aims to provide information about indications, techniques and long-term outcome of GJ tube use in children. METHODS:: Retrospective chart review for GJ tube placement procedures at our center over 10 years (1999 to 2009). Data collected included demographics, placement indications, underlying diagnosis, tube type, placement methods, complications, tube survival and patient outcome. RESULTS:: 33 patients utilizing GJ tubes were identified, with a total of 160 successful procedures documented (overall success rate of 97.6%). At initial placement, the mean age was 6 years (range 0.6-21.6), and mean weight was 19.4 kg (range 6.6-72.2). Patients had a mean of 4.9 tubes placed per patient (range 1-20) over a follow-up of 26.8 months (range 0.4-115.3). The most common indications for replacement included accidental dislodgement, tube obstruction, coiling back into the stomach and broken tube component. At the end of the study, 39% continued using GJ tubes, 30% were transitioned back to gastrostomy or oral feeds and 15% underwent a surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS:: Long term GJ tube use is possible and safe in children. Various feeding tubes and placement methods can be utilized by pediatric gastroenterologists to provide long term jejunal feeds in children.

Concepts: Feeding tube, Term, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding


BACKGROUND: Despite resolution of the symptoms of eating and/or swallowing disorders, prolonged tube feeding is maintained in some children. This study summarized the characteristics of children with tube dependence and investigated the causes of tube dependence. METHODS: Clinical and growth data were evaluated using medical records and referral forms for 35 tube-dependent children. RESULTS: The children in this study had a median age of 30 months (range, 17-37 months) on the first visit and 35.5 months (range, 21.3-44.8 months) at tube removal. Seven children were not weaned from the feeding tube within the study period. Twenty-two (63%) of the children were girls, 20 (57%) were able to walk, 24 (69%) had mild mental retardation, and 33 (94%) had underlying disease. Tube-dependent children tended to weigh less than age-matched normal children. Sixteen (45.7%) children were underweight. Children who had their feeding tubes removed before age 3 were significantly younger at the initial visit than those who had their tubes removed after 3 years of age. Increased finger feeding was observed during the period before tube removal. CONCLUSION: tube-dependent children tend to be close to normal in body growth and intellectual development. When weaning from tube feeding, interventions at earlier ages are more efficient. Reduction in or discontinuation of tube feeding and encouraging feeding self were effective to wean off tube feeding.

Concepts: Feeding tube, Mental retardation, Weaning


To evaluate the effect of larynx and esophageal inlet sparing on dysphagia recovery after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for stage III-IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Radiation therapy, Feeding tube, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Caesium, Head and neck cancer, Barrett's esophagus


Acute bronchiolitis has been associated with an increasing hospitalization rate over the past decades. The aim of this paper was to estimate the impact of home oxygen therapy (HOT) on hospital stay for infants with acute bronchiolitis. A retrospective cohort study was done including all children aged ≤12 months discharged from a pediatric tertiary-care center with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, between November 2007 and March 2008. Oxygen was administered according to a standardized protocol. We assumed children with the following criteria could have been sent home with O(2), instead of being kept in hospital: age ≥2 months, distance between home and hospital <50 km, in-hospital observation ≥24 h, O(2) requirement ≤1.0 L/min, stable clinical condition, no enteral tube feeding, and intravenous fluids <50 mL/kg/day. Children with significant underlying disease were excluded. A total of 177 children were included. Median age was 2.0 months (range 0-11), and median length of stay was 3.0 days (range 0-18). Forty-eight percent of patients (85/177) received oxygen during their hospital stay. Criteria for discharge with HOT were met in 7.1 % of patients, a mean of 1.8 days (SD 1.8) prior to real discharge. The number of patient-days of hospitalization which would have been saved had HOT been available was 21, representing 3.0 % of total patient-days of hospitalization for bronchiolitis over the study period (21/701). Conclusions: In this study setting, few children were eligible for an early discharge with HOT. Home oxygen therapy would not significantly decrease the overall burden of hospitalization for bronchiolitis.

Concepts: Oxygen, Cohort study, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Feeding tube, Pediatrics, Oxygen concentrator


How to cite this article Evans S., Preston F., Daly A., Ashmore C., Holden C. & MacDonald A. (2012) Home enteral tube feeding in inherited metabolic disorders children: a review of long-term carer knowledge and technique. J Hum Nutr Diet. Background:  Home enteral tube feeding (HETF) is commonly used in children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). It is unclear how caregiver knowledge and their safety in using tube feeding techniques changes over time. Methods:  Caregivers of children with IMD on HETF from one UK IMD centre had annual interviews over 3 years using a structured questionnaire and observation to assess HETF knowledge and safety techniques. Results:  Thirty-two caregivers of IMD children (median age 5.3 years; range 0.3-13.6 years) were studied. Seventy-eight percent (n = 25) of subjects had been on HETF for >5 years. Over 3 years, many caregivers' HETF techniques deteriorated: accurate feed ingredient measurement decreased from 36% to 11%; correct flushing of tubes decreased from 56% to 44%; checking tube position as recommended decreased from 72% to 56%; and correct hand washing decreased from 38% to 25%. Despite improvements, knowledge of some aspects remained poorly understood: dangers of incorrect tube placement increased from 41% to 56%; correct position for night feeding increased from 38% to 56%; and feed ingredient storage decreased from 87% to 38%. Conclusions:  The HETF techniques of caregivers of children with IMD declined over time. Caregivers need to understand that HETF, particularly in IMD, is a serious procedure associated with life-threatening risks. Poor HETF practices may cause feed contamination, incorrect feed concentration, feed intolerance, aspiration, peritonitis and even metabolic decompensation. HETF skills should be reassessed annually, with compulsory retraining if basic ‘core’ HETF competencies are not demonstrated.

Concepts: Caregiver, Understanding, Feeding tube, Knowledge


BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is widely accepted as the preferred procedure to establish long-term enteral feeding. OBJECTIVE: To learn the long-term outcomes of the patients who have undergone PEG placement, we reviewed our experience with children who underwent this procedure in our institute. METHODS: A total of 83 pediatric patients (42 males and 41 females), who were aged from 3 months to 20 years, underwent PEG insertion in National Taiwan University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2011. The underlying diseases of the patients receiving PEG were neurological dysfunction (n = 67), metabolic disorders (n = 9), gastrointestinal disease (n = 2), and congenital heart disease (n = 1). This procedure was performed under intravenous sedation or under general anesthesia. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered for 1 day. Tube feeding began 24 hours after the PEG placement. The body weight of the patients was recorded 1 day before PEG placement and at least 6 months after PEG placement. RESULTS: The weight-for-age Z-score before and at 6 months after PEG placement were -1.5 ± 2.0 and -0.9 ± 2.1, respectively, which was statistically significant (paired t test, p = 0.006). The catch-up growth was recorded after PEG placement. Complications of PEG in our patients included cellulitis at the gastrostomy wound (n = 14), dislodgement of the tube (n = 17), and persistent gastrocutaneous fistula (n = 3). The PEG tube was removed permanently in seventeen patients because they resumed an adequate oral intake. During the follow-up period, 14 patients died of an underlying disease or infection. CONCLUSION: Our experience confirmed that PEG placement is a good long-term route for nutritional supply with no serious complications in children.

Concepts: Feeding tube, Anesthesia, Sedation, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Endoscopy, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding


Background and Objective: Enteral feeding is vital in the critical care setting; however, the optimal route of enteral feeding (postpyloric vs gastric feeding) remains debated. We aimed to systematically review the current evidence to see whether postpyloric feeding could provide additional benefits to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy and safety of postpyloric feeding vs gastric feeding were included in our systematic review. Odds ratio (OR) was used for binary outcome data and weighted mean difference (WMD) was used for continuous outcome data. Summary effects were pooled using a fixed or random effects model as appropriate. Results: Seventeen RCTs were included in our meta-analysis. Postpyloric tube feeding could deliver higher proportions of estimated energy requirement (WMD, 12%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5%-18%) and reduce the gastric residual volume (GRV) (WMD, -169.1 mL; 95% CI, -291.995 to -46.196 mL). However, the meta-analysis failed to demonstrate any benefits to critically ill patients with postpyloric tube feeding in terms of mortality (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.44), new-onset pneumonia (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.53-1.13), and aspiration (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.64-2.25). There was no significant publication bias as represented by an Egger’s bias coefficient of 0.21 (95% CI, -1.01 to 1.43; P = .7). Conclusion: As compared with gastric feeding, postpyloric feeding is able to deliver higher proportions of the estimated energy requirement and can help reduce the GRV.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Intensive care medicine, Feeding tube, Meta-analysis, Random effects model