Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Federal


The Affordable Care Act requires most private health plans to cover contraceptive methods, services and counseling, without any out-of-pocket costs to patients; that requirement took effect for millions of Americans in January 2013.

Concepts: Birth control, Family planning, Sex education, Reimbursement, Federal


Analyses examined academic achievement data across third through eighth grades (N = 26,474), comparing students identified as homeless or highly mobile (HHM) with other students in the federal free meal program (FM), reduced price meals (RM), or neither (General). Achievement was lower as a function of rising risk status (General > RM > FM > HHM). Achievement gaps appeared stable or widened between HHM students and lower risk groups. Math and reading achievement were lower, and growth in math was slower in years of HHM identification, suggesting acute consequences of residential instability. Nonetheless, 45% of HHM students scored within or above the average range, suggesting academic resilience. Results underscore the need for research on risk and resilience processes among HHM students to address achievement disparities.

Concepts: Function, Chronic, University, Meal, Meals, Psychological resilience, Federal


The federal menu labeling law will require chain restaurants to post caloric information on menus, but the impact of labeling is uncertain.

Concepts: Restaurant, Calorie, Song Dynasty, Menu, Fast food, Federal


The success of telehealth could be undermined if serious privacy and security risks are not addressed. For example, sensors that are located in a patient’s home or that interface with the patient’s body to detect safety issues or medical emergencies may inadvertently transmit sensitive information about household activities. Similarly, routine data transmissions from an app or medical device, such as an insulin pump, may be shared with third-party advertisers. Without adequate security and privacy protections for underlying telehealth data and systems, providers and patients will lack trust in the use of telehealth solutions. Although some federal and state guidelines for telehealth security and privacy have been established, many gaps remain. No federal agency currently has authority to enact privacy and security requirements to cover the telehealth ecosystem. This article examines privacy risks and security threats to telehealth applications and summarizes the extent to which technical controls and federal law adequately address these risks. We argue for a comprehensive federal regulatory framework for telehealth, developed and enforced by a single federal entity, the Federal Trade Commission, to bolster trust and fully realize the benefits of telehealth.

Concepts: Patient, Risk, United States, Illness, Security, Core issues in ethics, Federal, Federal Trade Commission


We assessed rates of employer health insurance offer, take-up, and coverage in June 2013 and March 2017 among workers. Overall, offer rates remained stable, and take-up and coverage rates increased. In Medicaid expansion states, the share of workers with family incomes at or below 138 percent of the federal poverty level who had employer-based coverage held steady, while uninsurance rates declined.

Concepts: Health insurance, Poverty, Economics, Poverty in the United States, Household income in the United States, Poverty threshold, Federal, Poverty by country


The federal meaningful use (MU) program was aimed at improving adoption and use of electronic health records, but practicing physicians have criticized it. This study was aimed at quantifying the benefits (ie, usefulness) and burdens (ie, workload) of the MU program for practicing family physicians.

Concepts: Medicine, Economics, Electronic health record, Debut albums, Personal health record, Federal


We compared access to preventive dental care among low-income children eligible for public dental insurance to access among children with private dental insurance and/or high family income (>400% of the federal poverty level) in Georgia, and the effect of policies toward increasing access to dental care for low-income children.

Concepts: Poverty, Poverty in the United States, Dentistry, Household income in the United States, Social security, Poverty threshold, Federal, Poverty by country


In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented new food packages to improve dietary intake among WIC participants. This paper examines how the healthfulness of food purchases among low-income households changed following this reform.

Concepts: Health, Nutrition, United States, Malnutrition, New England, Package, Federal, Connecticut


The evidence to date on the federal child-care subsidy program’s effect on preschool child-care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child-care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly funded preschool programs-Head Start and public pre-k-that provide the highest quality care available to low-income families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 2,100; approximately 2 years old), this study finds that subsidy receipt during toddlerhood predicts greater use of the other forms of publicly funded care in the preschool year, although only if the earlier subsidy is used in a center. These results highlight a previously unconsidered potential benefit of the subsidy program.

Concepts: Cohort study, European Union, Childhood, Choice, Public, Subsidy, Federal


The aim of this study was to analyze the situation with the decentralization of the Brazilian National System of Food and Nutritional Security (SISAN), created in 2006 under the Brazilian National Food and Nutritional Security Act (LOSAN). Based on the criteria for joining SISAN, as set out in Decree 7,272 of August 25, 2010, the authors analyzed data from the basic information surveys of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2014 (Estadic e Munic/2014). The results show that decentralization of SISAN is still incipient at the municipal level, although all the states of Brazil have already joined the system. The social assistance sector has played an outstanding role in coordinating SISAN at the state and municipal levels, while in the latter the health sector has also played a relevant role. The analysis of food and nutritional security activities conducted to date, based on the sources of federal, state, and municipal funds, further shows that the federal sphere has still not played a strong inductive role capable of leading the expansion of SISAN. More effective funding mechanisms and the assignment of responsibilities to the states and municipalities are relevant factors for consolidating the system’s state-level base and expanding the municipal base in the search for an identity and capillarity for SISAN.

Concepts: Sociology, U.S. state, Brazil, State, Funding, Municipality, Federal