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Concept: Fading


Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm, the proposed direct vector method are more helpful than conventional block processing method for the indoor environments considered herein.

Concepts: Algorithm, Navigation, Global Positioning System, Dead reckoning, Satellite navigation system, Global navigation satellite system, Satellite navigation systems, Fading


Purpose: Current KCl:Eu(2+) prototype dosimeters require a wait time of 12 h between irradiation and dosimetric readout. Although irradiating the dosimeters in the evening and reading on the following day works well in the clinical schedule, reducing the wait time to few hours is desirable. The purposes of this work are to determine the origin of the unstable charge-storage centers and to determine if these centers respond to optical or thermal excitation prior to dosimetric readout.Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu(2+) dosimeters were fabricated in-house for this study. A 6 MV photon beam was used to irradiate the dosimeters. After x ray irradiation, dosimeters were subjected to external excitation with near-infrared (NIR) light, ultraviolet (UV) light, or thermal treatment. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) signal’s temporal stability was subsequently measured at room temperature over a few hours using a laboratory PSL readout system. The dosimeters were also placed in a cryostat to measure the temperature dependence of the temporal stability down to 10 K.Results: Strong F-band was present in the PSL stimulation spectrum, indicating that F-centers were the electron-storage centers in KCl:Eu(2+) where an electron was stored at a chlorine anion vacancy. Due to deep energy-depth (2.2 eV), F-centers were probably not responsible for the fast fading in the first a few hours post x ray irradiation. In addition, weak NIR bands were present. However, there was no change in PSL stabilization rate with intense NIR excitation, suggesting that the NIR bands played no role in the PSL fading. At temperatures lower than 77 K there was almost no signal fading with time. Noticeable PSL was observed for undoped KCl samples at room temperature, suggesting that Cl(2) (-) V(k) centers served as hole-storage centers for both undoped and doped KCl where a hole was trapped by a chlorine molecular ion. V(k) centers were stable at low temperature and became mobile at room temperature, probably causing the observed PSL fading with time. On the other hand, V(k) center could be stabilized by Eu(2+) activator or oxygen in the lattice, leading to the stable component in the PSL. A thermal process at elevated temperatures (60 °C or higher) was able to significantly accelerate the migration process resulting in a fast stabilization of PSL. However, this could not be accomplished using intense UV excitation.Conclusions: Thermal treatment enables KCl:Eu(2+) prototypes to be ready for readout in 1 h without the need of applying a large time-dependent correction factor. However, this cannot be achieved using optical preexcitation.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Food irradiation, Light, Laser, Temperature, Heat, Sterilization, Fading


Signal modulation is an essential design factor of a positioning system, which directly impacts the system’s potential performance. Chirp compressions have been widely applied in the fields of communication, radar, and indoor positioning owing to their high compression gain and good resistance to narrowband interferences and multipath fading. Based on linear chirp, we present a modulation method named chirped pseudo-noise (ChPN). The mathematical model of the ChPN signal is provided with its auto-correlation function (ACF) and the power spectrum density (PSD) derived. The ChPN with orthogonal chirps is also discussed, which has better resistance to near-far effect. Then the generation and detection methods as well as the performances of ChPN are discussed by theoretical analysis and simulation. The results show that, for ChPN signals with the same main-lobe bandwidth (MLB), generally, the signal with a larger sweep bandwidth has better tracking precision and multipath resistance. ChPN yields slighter ACF peaks ambiguity due to its lower ACF side-peaks, although its tracking precision is a little worse than that of a binary offset carrier (BOC) with the same MLB. Moreover, ChPN provides better overall anti-multipath performance than BOC. For the ChPN signals with the same code rate, a signal with a larger sweep bandwidth has better performance in most aspects. In engineering practice, a ChPN receiver can be implemented by minor modifications of a BOC receiver. Thus, ChPN modulation shows promise for future positioning applications.

Concepts: Signal processing, Data compression, Chirp, Fading, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, Multipath propagation


In wireless sensor networks, accurate location information is important for precise tracking of targets. In order to satisfy hardware installation cost and localization accuracy requirements, a weighted centroid localization (WCL) algorithm, which is considered a promising localization algorithm, was introduced. In our previous research, we proposed a test node-based WCL algorithm using a distance boundary to improve the localization accuracy in the corner and side areas. The proposed algorithm estimates the target location by averaging the test node locations that exactly match with the number of anchor nodes in the distribution map. However, since the received signal strength has large variability in real channel conditions, the number of anchor nodes is not exactly matched and the localization accuracy may deteriorate. Thus, we propose an intersection threshold to compensate for the localization accuracy in this paper. The simulation results show that the proposed test node-based WCL algorithm provides higher-precision location information than the conventional WCL algorithm in entire areas, with a reduced number of physical anchor nodes. Moreover, we show that the localization accuracy is improved by using the intersection threshold when considering small-scale fading channel conditions.

Concepts: Real number, The Target, Accuracy and precision, Proposal, Sensor, Wireless sensor network, Rayleigh fading, Fading


Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework. The contributions include the following: (1) a convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) are combined by two different ways without prior knowledge involved; (2) a large database, including eleven types of single-carrier modulation signals with various noises as well as a fading channel, is collected with various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) based on a real geographical environment; and (3) experimental results demonstrate that HDMF is very capable of coping with the AMC problem, and achieves much better performance when compared with the independent network.

Concepts: Following, Neuroscience, Signal, Problem solving, Short-term memory, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Rayleigh fading, Fading


An explosive growth in vehicular wireless applications gives rise to spectrum resource starvation. Cognitive radio has been used in vehicular networks to mitigate the impending spectrum starvation problem by allowing vehicles to fully exploit spectrum opportunities unoccupied by licensed users. Efficient and effective detection of licensed user is a critical issue to realize cognitive radio applications. However, spectrum sensing in vehicular environments is a very challenging task due to vehicle mobility. For instance, vehicle mobility has a large effect on the wireless channel, thereby impacting the detection performance of spectrum sensing. Thus, gargantuan efforts have been made in order to analyze the fading properties of mobile radio channel in vehicular environments. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that the wireless channel in vehicular environments can be characterized by a temporally correlated Rayleigh fading. In this paper, we focus on energy detection for spectrum sensing and a counting rule for cooperative sensing based on Neyman-Pearson criteria. Further, we go into the effect of the sensing and reporting channel conditions on the sensing performance under the temporally correlated Rayleigh channel. For local and cooperative sensing, we derive some alternative expressions for the average probability of misdetection. The pertinent numerical and simulating results are provided to further validate our theoretical analyses under a variety of scenarios.

Concepts: Doppler effect, Channel, Radio, Vehicle, Vehicles, Rayleigh fading, Fading, Rician fading


Wireless control systems can sense, control and act on the information exchanged between the wireless sensor nodes in a control loop. However, the exchanged information becomes susceptible to the degenerative effects produced by the multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects characteristic of wireless channels, several techniques have been investigated recently. Among them, wavelet coding is a good alternative for wireless communications for its robustness to the effects of multipath and its low computational complexity. This work proposes an adaptive wavelet coding whose parameters of code rate and signal constellation can vary according to the fading level and evaluates the use of this transmission system in a control loop implemented by wireless sensor nodes. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus E b / N 0 and spectral efficiency, considering a time-varying channel with flat Rayleigh fading, and in terms of processing overhead on a control system with wireless communication. The results obtained through computational simulations and experimental tests show performance gains obtained by insertion of the adaptive wavelet coding in a control loop with nodes interconnected by wireless link. These results enable the use of this technique in a wireless link control loop.

Concepts: Systems theory, Control theory, Feedback, Information theory, PID controller, Control system, Control engineering, Fading


Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) via optical fibers makes use of Rayleigh backscattering for the detection of acoustic waves that interact with the fiber along its entire length. The random nature of Rayleigh backscattering leads to nonuniform performance along the fiber and, occasionally, to complete signal fading. In addition, distance-dependent signal-to-noise (SNR) degradation is always present due to propagation loss. In contrast, using arrays of discrete reflectors [such as weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with equal center wavelengths] offers deterministic performance which can be designed to be uniform along the fiber. Here we describe an approach for implementing Rayleigh-based discrete reflectors that can offer enhanced detection performance in selected regions. It is based on enclosing sections of the fiber in acoustically insulated boxes to create lumped Rayleigh reflectors. Besides diminishing the randomness in detection sensitivity, the method enables increasing the detection SNR far beyond the typical value for Rayleigh-based DAS and obtaining sensitivities comparable with discrete reflectors. The proposed method was successfully tested via both simulation and experiment.

Concepts: Light, Fiber, Randomness, Free will, Determinism, Waves, Fiber Bragg grating, Fading


Small scale fading signals resulting from multipath propagation can cause signal strength variations in the range of several dB. Resulting from the fluctuating signal strengths, the wake-up packet reception rate can decrease significantly. Using antenna diversity can greatly mitigate these effects. This article presents a novel wireless sensor node with wake-up receiver that uses an equal-gain diversity method with two antennas in the wake-up path. Summation of the two diversity branch signals is done after the passive demodulation of the incoming signals. As a result, the wireless sensor node requires almost no additional active parts that would increase power consumption. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the improved wake-up robustness and reliability achieved by this diversity technique in a multipath environment.

Concepts: Causality, Radio, Antenna, Radio electronics, Fading, Receiver, Diversity scheme, Multipath propagation


Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability. The proposed schemes are both flexible and relatively simple to implement on hardware platforms with constrained resources making them inherently suitable for BAN applications. We present the key algorithm parameters used to dynamically respond to the channel variation. This allows the algorithms to achieve a better energy efficiency and signal reliability in everyday usage scenarios such as those in which a normal person undertakes many different activities (e.g. sitting, walking, standing, etc). We also profile their performance against traditional, optimal and other existing schemes for which it is demonstrated that not only does the outage probability reduce significantly, but the proposed algorithms also save up to 35% average transmit power compared to the competing schemes.

Concepts: Algorithm, United Kingdom, Ontology, Human behavior, English Channel, Ban, Fading, Multipath propagation