Concept: Facial features
We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.
Male mate choice might be based on both absolute and relative strategies. Cues of female attractiveness are thus likely to reflect both fitness and reproductive potential, as well as compatibility with particular male phenotypes. In humans, absolute clues of fertility and indices of favorable developmental stability are generally associated with increased women’s attractiveness. However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care. For instance, in humans, a man might prefer a woman with recessive traits, thereby increasing the probability that his paternal traits will be visible in the child and ensuring paternity. Alternatively, attractiveness is hypothesized to be driven by self-resembling features (homogamy), which would reduce outbreeding depression. These hypotheses have been simultaneously evaluated for various facial traits using both real and artificial facial stimuli. The predicted preferences were then compared to realized mate choices using facial pictures from couples with at least 1 child. No evidence was found to support the paternity uncertainty hypothesis, as recessive features were not preferred by male raters. Conversely, preferences for self-resembling mates were found for several facial traits (hair and eye color, chin dimple, and thickness of lips and eyebrows). Moreover, realized homogamy for facial traits was also found in a sample of long-term mates. The advantages of homogamy in evolutionary terms are discussed.
: In the past two decades, presurgical nasoalveolar molding has been applied increasingly in the care of patients with a cleft to improve nasal symmetry and facilitate closure of the lip and secondary rhinoplasty. Many cleft centers do not apply presurgical molding, because its effect is disputed. This review aims to quantify the effect of nasal symmetry in the long term.
The philtral column and dimple are especially important in patients with cleft lip. Recently, we have found that, at maximal puckering, the appearance of the philtrum worsens although the philtral column is well formed at rest. In this study, we explore the effectiveness of the coronal muscle splitting technique in a microform cleft lip through comparative analysis of the postoperative results between the control group (patients without coronal muscle splitting) and the study group (patients with coronal muscle splitting).
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia characterized by progressive loss of frontotemporal hairline and eyebrows that affects mainly postmenopausal women. Eyebrow loss is observed in the majority of patients with a negative impact on quality of life. Eyebrow alopecia is thought to precede scalp alopecia in 39% of cases(1) , and prompt investigation of eyebrow alopecia may lead to early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we describe 3 patients with FFA who presented with isolated eyebrow loss (figure 1). Clinical, dermoscopy and histology findings are described in table 1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Unilateral cleft lip is a profoundly asymmetrical condition affecting all hard and soft tissue layers from the nose to the upper lip. Although the asymmetry is minimized through cleft lip repair, a degree of asymmetry inevitably persists. Studies investigating asymmetry in patients with cleft lip have used facial measurements, and static 2D and 3D photography. The nose/lip/mouth area, however, is rarely static in our day to day social interactions.
The unmet need for cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) care in India is significant. However, estimates required for CL/P care program planning are lacking.
The effects of rhinoplasty maneuvers on adjacent facial features are an important component in preoperative planning and patient counseling. Tip projection modifications are commonly performed in both cosmetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty.
Dr Michael B. Lewis has been using his personal approach to bilateral cleft lip (BCL) repair for 30 years to achieve a loose, pouting upper lip, a 90-degree columellar-labial angle, and a projecting nasal tip. This article describes technique and results.
The objective of this work is to describe a segmental maxillary distraction osteogenesis (SDO) with segmental Lefort I with an inexpensive device.Four patients who presented severe class III and maxillary hypoplasia due to cleft lip and palate sequel were treated. A SDO was performed using a dental-anchored Hyrax device, achieving enlargement of the upper jaw without altering speech, with adequate and stable occlusion. Dental implants in a new formed bone were installed.The authors can conclude that SDO is a good treatment alternative for patients with maxillary hypoplasia. It preserves velopharyngeal function and is a stable treatment, maintaining the overjet achieved with distraction osteogenesis, without changes in posterior occlusion. The open bite generated with tooth-borne devices can be solved with temporary anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics during consolidation phase. Modified Hyrax device allows expanding and moving forward the maxillary arch, with a low cost.