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Concept: Facial features

506

We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 Ɨ 10(-8) to 3 Ɨ 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.

Concepts: Facial features, Protein, Spanish language, United States, Hair follicle, Moustache, Hair, Facial hair

180

Male mate choice might be based on both absolute and relative strategies. Cues of female attractiveness are thus likely to reflect both fitness and reproductive potential, as well as compatibility with particular male phenotypes. In humans, absolute clues of fertility and indices of favorable developmental stability are generally associated with increased women’s attractiveness. However, why men exhibit variable preferences remains less studied. Male mate choice might be influenced by uncertainty of paternity, a selective factor in species where the survival of the offspring depends on postnatal paternal care. For instance, in humans, a man might prefer a woman with recessive traits, thereby increasing the probability that his paternal traits will be visible in the child and ensuring paternity. Alternatively, attractiveness is hypothesized to be driven by self-resembling features (homogamy), which would reduce outbreeding depression. These hypotheses have been simultaneously evaluated for various facial traits using both real and artificial facial stimuli. The predicted preferences were then compared to realized mate choices using facial pictures from couples with at least 1 child. No evidence was found to support the paternity uncertainty hypothesis, as recessive features were not preferred by male raters. Conversely, preferences for self-resembling mates were found for several facial traits (hair and eye color, chin dimple, and thickness of lips and eyebrows). Moreover, realized homogamy for facial traits was also found in a sample of long-term mates. The advantages of homogamy in evolutionary terms are discussed.

Concepts: Female, Reproduction, Hypothesis, Facial features, Utility, Scientific method, Choice, Preference

27

: In the past two decades, presurgical nasoalveolar molding has been applied increasingly in the care of patients with a cleft to improve nasal symmetry and facilitate closure of the lip and secondary rhinoplasty. Many cleft centers do not apply presurgical molding, because its effect is disputed. This review aims to quantify the effect of nasal symmetry in the long term.

Concepts: Facial features, Rhinoplasty, Research, Term, Time

26

The philtral column and dimple are especially important in patients with cleft lip. Recently, we have found that, at maximal puckering, the appearance of the philtrum worsens although the philtral column is well formed at rest. In this study, we explore the effectiveness of the coronal muscle splitting technique in a microform cleft lip through comparative analysis of the postoperative results between the control group (patients without coronal muscle splitting) and the study group (patients with coronal muscle splitting).

Concepts: PHF8, Controlling for a variable, Mouth, Scientific control, Philtrum, Cleft lip and palate, Facial features

24

Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a primary lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia characterized by progressive loss of frontotemporal hairline and eyebrows that affects mainly postmenopausal women. Eyebrow loss is observed in the majority of patients with a negative impact on quality of life. Eyebrow alopecia is thought to precede scalp alopecia in 39% of cases(1) , and prompt investigation of eyebrow alopecia may lead to early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we describe 3 patients with FFA who presented with isolated eyebrow loss (figure 1). Clinical, dermoscopy and histology findings are described in table 1. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Medical terms, Eyebrow piercing, All rights reversed, Cicatricial alopecia, Eyebrow, Facial features, All rights reserved, Copyright

23

Unilateral cleft lip is a profoundly asymmetrical condition affecting all hard and soft tissue layers from the nose to the upper lip. Although the asymmetry is minimized through cleft lip repair, a degree of asymmetry inevitably persists. Studies investigating asymmetry in patients with cleft lip have used facial measurements, and static 2D and 3D photography. The nose/lip/mouth area, however, is rarely static in our day to day social interactions.

Concepts: Tissues, Philtrum, Matter, Facial features, Sociology, Facial symmetry, Asymmetry, Cleft lip and palate

6

The unmet need for cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) care in India is significant. However, estimates required for CL/P care program planning are lacking.

Concepts: Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Facial features, Estimator, Cleft lip and palate

1

The impression that cheek filling results in longitudinal shortening (“lift”) of the skin and elevation of the nasolabial crease(NLC) or nasolabial fold (NLF) has become common within the facial injection community, but remains unsubstantiated. In this study, seventy-seven patients were evaluated pre and post-injection injection of the cheeks with an Hyaluronic Acid filler using a 3-dimensional camera system. A constant pattern of skin expansion away from the center of the injection and perpendicular to the surface of the skin was observed. A subgroup of 37 patients without differences in their pre and post-injection facial expression were analyzed by direct comparison and failed to demonstrate lateral traction (or “pull”) on the intervening skin from the cheek injection site to the nasolabial crease. Further, there was no photographic difference in the nasolabial fold or nasolabial crease. The only patients who demonstrated photographic improvement of the medial face were those who had filler placed directly in the transition between the lateral nasolabial fold and cheek (nasojugal crease). It is likely that expanding the nasojugal crease is the direct visual cue that leads to perceived improvement in the nasolabial fold.

Concepts: Skin, Demonstration, Cheek, Cheek augmentation, Difference, Buccal branch of the facial nerve, Nasolabial fold, Facial features

1

The effects of rhinoplasty maneuvers on adjacent facial features are an important component in preoperative planning and patient counseling. Tip projection modifications are commonly performed in both cosmetic and reconstructive rhinoplasty.

Concepts: Rhinoplasty, Facial features

0

The biological relatives of offspring with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit distinctive facial features, including excess asymmetry, which are hypothesized to indicate the presence of genetic risk factors. The significance of excess soft tissue nasal asymmetry in at-risk relatives is unclear and was examined in the present study. Our sample included 164 unaffected parents from families with a history of orofacial clefting and 243 adult controls. Geometric morphometric methods were used to analyze the coordinates of 15 nasal landmarks collected from three-dimensional facial surface images. Following generalized Procrustes analysis, Procrustes ANOVA and MANOVA tests were applied to determine the type and magnitude of nasal asymmetry present in each group. Group differences in mean nasal asymmetry were also assessed via permutation testing. We found that nasal asymmetry in both parents and controls was directional in nature, although the magnitude of the asymmetry was greater in parents. This was confirmed with permutation testing, where the mean nasal asymmetry was significantly different (pā€‰<ā€‰.0001) between parents and controls. The asymmetry was greatest for midline structures and the nostrils. When subsets of parents were subsequently analyzed and compared (parents with bilateral vs. unilateral offspring; parents with left vs. right unilateral offspring), each group showed a similar pattern of asymmetry and could not be distinguished statistically. Thus, the side of the unilateral cleft (right vs. left) in offspring was not associated with the direction of the nasal asymmetry in parents.

Concepts: Cleft lip and palate, Right- and left-hand traffic, Group, Cleft palate, Analysis of variance, Statistics, Facial features, Procrustes analysis