Mining the “glycocode”–exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy
- FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Published almost 5 years ago
Mucins are the main components of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Mucin glycosylation is critical to most intermolecular and intercellular interactions. However, due to the highly complex and heterogeneous mucin glycan structures, the encoded biological information remains largely encrypted. Here we have developed a methodology based on force spectroscopy to identify biologically accessible glycoepitopes in purified porcine gastric mucin (pPGM) and purified porcine jejunal mucin (pPJM). The binding specificity of lectins Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA), Maackia amurensis lectin II (MALII), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA) was utilized in force spectroscopy measurements to quantify the affinity and spatial distribution of their cognate sugars at the molecular scale. Binding energy of 4, 1.6, and 26 aJ was determined on pPGM for RCA, PNA, and UEA. Binding was abolished by competition with free ligands, demonstrating the validity of the affinity data. The distributions of the nearest binding site separations estimated the number of binding sites in a 200-nm mucin segment to be 4 for RCA, PNA, and UEA, and 1.8 for MALII. Binding site separations were affected by partial defucosylation of pPGM. Furthermore, we showed that this new approach can resolve differences between gastric and jejunum mucins.-Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Fuell, C., Pin, C., Tailford L. E., Juge, N. Mining the “glycocode”-exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy.
The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand 1 . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called ‘speed breeding’, which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.
- Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry
- Published over 5 years ago
The dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) soluble part of Calopogonium mucunoides (Fabaceae) resulted in the isolation of 10 isoflavones (4'-O-methylalpinumisoflavone, 4'-O-methylderrone, alpinumisoflavone, daidzeine, Calopogonium isoflavone A, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin, cabreuvin and 7-O-methylpseudobaptigenin) and a rotenoid (6a,12a-dehydroxydegueline). Among these, daidzeine, 7-O-methylcuneantin, atalantoflavone and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline have been isolated for the first time from C. mucunoides while remaining are already reported from this source. Structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. Among all the isolated constituents, nine were evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. However, six were found potent. These include 4'-O-methylderrone, daidzeine, atalantoflavone, 2',4',5',7-tetramethoxyisoflavone, 7-O-methylcuneantin and 6a, 12a-dehydroxydegueline.
BACKGROUND: Plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. The successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic alpha-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. In this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic alpha-amylase. The combined inhibitory effects of plant-based foods were also evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of plant-based foods was performed in order to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content. METHODS: The dried plants of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Morus alba (mulberry), Aegle marmelos (bael), and Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) were extracted with distilled water and dried using spray drying process. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent and AlCl3 assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal alpha-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. RESULTS: The phytochemical analysis revealed that the total phenolic content of the dried extracts were in the range of 460.0-230.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/ g dried extract. The dried extracts contained flavonoid in the range of 50.3-114.8 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. It was noted that the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts were 4.24+/-0.12 mg/ml, 0.59+/-0.06 mg/ml, and 3.15+/-0.19 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the IC50 values of chrysanthemum, mulberry and butterfly pea extracts against intestinal sucrase were 3.85+/-0.41 mg/ml, 0.94+/-0.11 mg/ml, and 4.41+/-0.15 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of roselle and butterfly pea extracts against pancreatic alpha-amylase occurred at concentration of 3.52+/-0.15 mg/ml and 4.05+/-0.32 mg/ml, respectively. Combining roselle, chrysanthemum, and butterfly pea extracts with mulberry extract showed additive interaction on intestinal maltase inhibition. The results also demonstrated that the combination of chrysanthemum, mulberry, or bael extracts together with roselle extract produced synergistic inhibition, whereas roselle extract showed additive inhibition when combined with butterfly pea extract against pancreatic alpha-amylase. CONCLUSIONS: The present study presents data from five plant-based foods evaluating the intestinal alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitory activities and their additive and synergistic interactions. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus.
The acceptability of frozen green peas depends on their sensory quality. There is a need to relate physico-chemical parameters to sensory quality. In this research, six brands of frozen green peas representing product sold for retail and caterer’s markets were purchased and subjected to descriptive sensory evaluation and physico-chemical analyses (including dry matter content, alcohol insoluble solids content, starch content, °Brix, residual peroxidase activity, size sorting, hardness using texture analysis and colour measurements) to assess and explain product quality.
- International journal of biological macromolecules
- Published over 4 years ago
Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.
The objective of this study is to evaluate disease modifying efficacy and safety of a standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Fenugreek (IBHB) (family Fabaceae) as a nutritional adjuvant to Levo-dopa (L-Dopa) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We conducted double-blind placebo-controlled proof of concept clinical study of IBHB capsules (300 mg, twice daily) with matching placebo for 6 months of period in 50 patients of PD stabilized on L-Dopa therapy. The efficacy outcome measures were the scores of Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS - total and its subsections), and Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging at baseline and end of 6-months treatment duration. Safety evaluation included haematology, biochemistry, urinalysis parameters and adverse event monitoring. Total UPDRS scores in IBHB treatment (0.098%) showed slower rise as opposed to steep rise (13.36%) shown by placebo. Further, Clinically Important Difference for total UPDRS scores and scores of motor subsection of UPDRS was found to be 5.3 and 4.8, respectively, in favour of IBHB treatment. Similar improvement was shown by IBHB in terms of H&Y staging as compared with placebo. IBHB was found to have excellent safety and tolerability profile. In conclusion, IBHB can be useful adjuvant treatment with L-Dopa in management of PD patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wild peas vary in their cross-compatibility with cultivated pea (Pisum sativum subsp. sativum L.) depending on alleles of a nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility locus
- TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik
- Published almost 4 years ago
Divergent wild and endemic peas differ in hybrid sterility in reciprocal crosses with cultivated pea depending on alleles of a nuclear ‘speciation gene’ involved in nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility.
Binderoboletus segoi gen. and sp. nov., Guyanaporus albipodus gen. and sp. nov. and Singerocomus rubriflavus gen. and sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales, Basidiomycota) are described from the Pakaraima Mountains and adjacent lowlands of Guyana. Xerocomus inundabilis, originally described from the central Brazilian Amazon and based solely on the type collection, is redescribed from numerous collections from Guyana and transferred into Singerocomus. These boletes occur in Neotropical forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees in the genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae), Aldina (Fabaceae subfam. Papilionoideae) and Pakaraimaea (Dipterocarpaceae). Three of the species were repeatedly found in a multiyear sporocarp survey in Dicymbe corymbosa-monodominant forest. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and multilocus DNA sequence data are provided for each species. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a large taxon set across the Boletaceae justifies erection of the new genera.
Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.