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Concept: Eye care professional


To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China.

Concepts: Refraction, Vision, Visual perception, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Refractive error, Eye care professional, Pinhole occluder


PURPOSE: The prevalence of refractive errors in children has been extensively researched. Comparisons between studies can, however, be compromised because of differences between accommodation control methods and techniques used for measuring refractive error. The aim of this study was to compare spherical refractive error results obtained at baseline and using two different accommodation control methods-extended optical fogging and cycloplegia-for two measurement techniques-autorefraction and retinoscopy. METHODS: Participants included 25 school children aged 6 to 13 years (mean age, 9.52 ± 2.06 years). The refractive error of one eye was measured at baseline and again under two different accommodation control conditions: extended optical fogging (+2.00DS for 20 minutes) and cycloplegia (1% cyclopentolate). Autorefraction and retinoscopy were both used to measure the most plus spherical power for each condition. RESULTS: A significant interaction was demonstrated between measurement technique and accommodation control method (p = 0.036), with significant differences in spherical power evident between accommodation control methods for each of the measurement techniques (p < 0.005). For retinoscopy, refractive errors were significantly more positive for cycloplegia compared with optical fogging, which were in turn significantly more positive than baseline; whereas for autorefraction, there were significant differences between cycloplegia and extended optical fogging and between cycloplegia and baseline only. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of refractive error under cycloplegia elicits more plus than using extended optical fogging as a method to relax accommodation. These findings support the use of cycloplegic refraction compared with extended optical fogging as a means of controlling accommodation for population-based refractive error studies in children.

Concepts: Refraction, Measurement, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Cycloplegia, Refractive error, Retinoscopy, Eye care professional


Down syndrome (DS) is associated with ocular and cognitive sequelae, which both have the potential to influence clinical measures of refractive error. This study compares variability of autorefraction among subjects with and without DS.

Concepts: Refraction, Refractive index, Down syndrome, Sequela, Refractive error, Eye care professional


To investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges.

Concepts: Population, Refraction, Refractive index, Lens, Refractive error, Geometrical optics, Physical optics, Eye care professional


Low birth weight (BW) is linked to impaired organ development in childhood, including altered ocular morphological and functional development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low BW has long-term effects on visual acuity and refraction in adulthood.

Concepts: Biology, Refraction, Visual acuity, Lens, Refractive error, Eye care professional, Optometry


The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic review and cost analysis to summarize, from the Ministry of Health perspective, the costs families might incur because of their child’s prescription for refractive errors and amblyopia correction.

Concepts: Refraction, Eye care professional, Ministry of Truth


The peripheral refractive error of the human eye has been hypothesized to be a major stimulus for the development of its central refractive error.

Concepts: Optics, Refraction, Eye, Lens, Refractive error, Human eye, Eye care professional, Optometry


visual impairment is associated with an increased risk of falls, yet eye care professionals are infrequently members of falls prevention clinics. The aim of this preliminary study was to validate a newly created Visual Impairment as a Risk for Falls Questionnaire intended to be used by those professionals not involved in eye care.

Concepts: Validation, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Visual impairment, Eye care professional, Verification and validation


The USee device is a new self-refraction tool that allows users to determine their own refractive error. We evaluated the ease of use of USee in adults, and compared the refractive error correction achieved with USee to clinical manifest refraction.

Concepts: Refraction, Refractive index, Device, Refractive error, Eye care professional, Usability


The objective of this study was to review games for amblyopia (lazy eye) that are commercially available in mobile applications (apps) stores and assess the involvement of eye care professionals in their development.

Concepts: Management, Professional, Amblyopia, Personal digital assistant, Smartphone, Eye care professional, Mobile computing