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Concept: Exercise


BACKGROUND: The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT) could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE) but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported. METHODS: We tested the acute effects of high-intensity interval resistance training (HIRT) vs. traditional resistance training (TT) on REE and respiratory ratio (RR) at 22 hours post-exercise. In two separate sessions, seventeen trained males carried out HIRT and TT protocols. The HIRT technique consists of: 6 repetitions, 20 seconds rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20 secs rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2[prime]30[prime][prime] rest between sets, three exercises for a total of 7 sets. TT consisted of eight exercises of 4 sets of 8–12 repetitions with one/two minutes rest with a total amount of 32 sets. We measured basal REE and RR (TT0 and HIRT0) and 22 hours after the training session (TT22 and HIRT22). RESULTS: HIRT showed a greater significant increase (p < 0.001) in REE at 22 hours compared to TT (HIRT22 2362 +/- 118 Kcal/d vs TT22 1999 +/- 88 Kcal/d). RR at HIRT22 was significantly lower (0.798 +/- 0.010) compared to both HIRT0 (0.827 +/- 0.006) and TT22 (0.822 +/- 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that shorter HIRT sessions may increase REE after exercise to a greater extent than TT and may reduce RR hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise.

Concepts: Training, Physical exercise, Gh, Strength training, Weight training, Order theory, Trigraph, Exercise


BACKGROUND: This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W), a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE) beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. METHODS: Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) consumed a 24-h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0[degree sign]C) at ~60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 +/- 4 bpm) interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 +/- 368 mL) during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS) were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. RESULTS: Blood glucose was higher (p < 0.05) after 50 min of submaximal cycling just prior to the WAnT for CE (6.1 +/- 1.7 mmol/L) compared to W (4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/L) and NCE (4.6 +/- 1.2 mmol/L). Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 +/- 153, 635 +/- 143, 650 +/- 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.44) or mean (455 +/- 100, 458 +/- 95, 454 +/- 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62) power for the first WAnT or mean (414 +/- 92, 425 +/- 85, 423 +/- 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13) power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational exercisers during a 1-h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state.

Concepts: 496, Carbohydrate, Self number, Exercise, Cycling, Aerobic exercise, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Blood sugar


Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences) of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI.

Concepts: Thought, Costs, Exercise, Resistance training, Exercise physiology, Cycling, Weight training, Strength training


Physical activity (PA) is a key component of healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. In contrast, physical inactivity accounts for a significant proportion of premature deaths worldwide. Physicians are in a critical position to help patients develop healthy lifestyles by actively counseling on PA. Sports medicine physicians, with their focus on sports and exercise medicine are uniquely trained to provide such expertise to patients, learners and colleagues. To succeed, physicians need clinical tools and processes that support PA assessment and counseling. Linking patients to community resources, and specifically to health and fitness professionals is a key strategy. Efforts should be made to expand provider education during medical school, residency and fellowship training, and continuing medical education. Lastly, physically active physicians are more likely to counsel patients to be active. A key message for the sports medicine community is the importance of serving as a positive PA role model.

Concepts: Pediatrics, Obesity, Exercise, Weight loss, Medical education, Medical school, Physician, Medicine


BACKGROUND: People with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently have low activity levels, poor mobility and reduced quality of life. Although increased physical activity may improve mobility, balance and wellbeing, adherence to exercises and activity programs over the longer term can be challenging, particularly for older people with progressive neurological conditions such as PD. Physical activities that are engaging and enjoyable, such as dancing, might enhance adherence over the long term. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of Irish set dancing compared with routine physiotherapy for people with mild to moderately severe PD. METHODS: Twenty-four people with idiopathic PD referred for movement rehabilitation were randomized to receive standard physiotherapy exercises or Irish set dancing classes once per week plus a weekly home program for 6 months (12 in each group). The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was the main focus of this evaluation. The primary outcome was motor disability measured by the motor component of the UPDRS, which was assessed prior to and after therapy by trained assessors blinded to group assignment. The Timed Up and Go, the Berg Balance Scale and the modified Freezing of Gait Questionnaire were secondary measures. Quality of life of the people with PD was evaluated using the PDQ-39. RESULTS: Both the Irish set dancing and physiotherapy exercise program were shown to be feasible and safe. There were no differences between groups in the rate of adverse events such as falls, serious injuries, death or rates of admission to hospital. The physiotherapists who provided usual care remained blind to group allocation, with no change in their standard clinical practice. Compliance and adherence to both the exercise and dance programs were very high and attrition rates were low over the 6 months of therapy. Although improvements were made in both groups, the dance group showed superior results to standard physiotherapy in relation to freezing of gait, balance and motor disability. CONCLUSIONS: Irish dancing and physiotherapy were both safe and feasible in this sample from Venice, with good adherence over a comparatively long time period of 6 months. A larger multi-centre trial is now warranted to establish whether Irish set dancing is more effective than routine physiotherapy for enhancing mobility, balance and quality of life in people living with idiopathic PD.Trial registration: EudraCT number 2012-005769-11.

Concepts: Irish dance, Physical therapy, Physical exercise, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Exercise, Parkinson's disease


BACKGROUND: This systematic review sought to evaluate critically the health benefits of physical activity among persons with atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is increasing in Western society. While health benefits of physical activity are well established, benefits of physical activity among individuals with AF are not clearly identified. METHODS: Literature was retrieved systematically through searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane), cross-referencing, and drawing on the authors' knowledge. Identified original research articles evaluated health benefits of physical activity among persons with AF or effects of physical activity on AF incidence. From 1056 individual citations, 36 eligible articles were identified. RESULTS: Moderate-intensity physical activity was found to improve exercise capacity, quality of life, and the ability to carry out activities of daily living among persons with AF (n = 6). Increased incidence of AF was not associated with physical activity among the general population (n = 2), although long-term vigorous endurance exercise may be associated with increased incidence of AF (n = 7), and greater risks may be associated with high-intensity physical activity among those with AF (n = 2). Moderate-intensity physical activity among individuals with AF does not adversely alter training outcomes, functional capacity, morbidity, or mortality compared with those in sinus rhythm (n = 12). Physical activity may improve management and treatment of AF (n = 6) and, among at-risk populations, may reduce incidence of AF (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, moderate-intensity physical activity should be encouraged among persons with or at risk of AF. Further research is needed.

Concepts: Physical exercise, Person, Population, Weight loss, Exercise, Heart, Individual, Atrial fibrillation


From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children’s and youth’s fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement.

Concepts: Leisure, Educational psychology, Cognition, Cycling, Psychology, Exercise, Education, Motor skill


The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains.

Concepts: Cognition, Old age, Middle age, Exercise


High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Concepts: Time, Physical exercise, Exercise, Dieting, Body shape, Adipose tissue, Overweight, Obesity


/st>Evidence is limited for the effectiveness of interventions for survivors of critical illness after hospital discharge. We explored the effect of an 8-week hospital-based exercise-training programme on physical fitness and quality-of-life.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Exercise, Strength training