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Concept: Excipient


Objective: Venlafaxine is freely soluble In water and administered orally as hydrochloride salt In two to three divided doses. In the present investigation different release retarding matrices have been evaluated for sustained release of venlafaxine hydrochloride (VH) from the formulated tablets. Materials and methods: Sustained release matrix tablets were formulated using different hydrophilic, hydrophobic and waxy materials as matrix formers. Tableting was done by pre-compression, direct compression and hot melt granulation depending on the type of matrix material used and evaluated for different tests. The formulated tablets were compared with commercial venlafaxine products. In vitro drug dissolution profiles were fitted In different mathematical models to elucidate the release mechanism. Results: Dissolution data showed that commercial formulations Venlor XR(®) and Venfax PR(®) released the entire drug withIn 8 h where as the formulated tablets with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and cetyl alcohol as matrix formers provided sustained release of drug for 14-15 h. The release was found to follow Hixson Crowel and Higuchi kinetics for HPMC and cetyl alcohol tablets, respectively. Conclusion: The developed matrix tablet formulations with HPMC and cetyl alcohol provided sustained release profiles for prolonged periods than commercial formulations.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Drugs, Major depressive disorder, Fatty alcohol, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient, Cetyl alcohol


Abstract A promising glipizide formulation comprising compression of four-layer coated beads into tablets was prepared. The tablet offered the advantages of: a two-hour lag time before drug release, retaining sustained release characteristics and providing approximately zero-order drug release. Drug release was nearly independent of paddle speeds of 50 and 100 rpm releasing 80% over 14 h similar to the commercial glipizide osmotic pump tablet during dissolution testing while keeping the benefits of multiparticular dosage forms. The tablets contain beads with four layers: (1) the innermost layer consists of 2.5 g glipizide and 3.75 g solid ethylcellulose (Surelease®) coated onto 71.25 g of sugar beads; (2) next a hardening layer of 5 g of hypromellose; (3) the controlled release layer of 7.5 g of Surelease®:lactose at a solids ratio of 100:7 and (4) an outermost layer of 20 g of lactose:sodium starch glycolate (Explotab®) at a 2:1 ratio. Then, beads were compressed into tablets containing 11 mg of glipizide using 1500 lbs of compression pressure. The dissolution test similarity factor (f(2)) was above 50 for all test conditions for formulation F13 and Glucotrol® with a high of 69.9. The two Surelease® layers both aid controlling drug release, with the Surelease®-drug layer affecting drug release to a greater extent.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Excipient, Dosage forms, Compression


Objectives: Modified starches based polymeric substances find utmost applicability in pharmaceutical formulation development. Cross-linked starches showed very promising results in drug delivery application. The present investigation concerns with the development of controlled release tablets of lamivudine using cross-linked sago starch. Methods: The cross-linked derivative was synthesized with phosphorous oxychloride and native sago starch in basic pH medium. The cross-linked sago starch was tested for acute toxicity and drug-excipient compatibility study. The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical characteristics, in vitro dissolution release study and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbit model. Results: In vitro release study showed that the optimized formulation exhibited highest correlation ® in case of zero order kinetic model and the release mechanism followed a combination of diffusion and erosion process. There was a significant difference in the pharmacokinetic parameters (T(max), C(max), AUC, V(d), T(½), and MDT) of the optimized formulation as compared to the marketed conventional tablet Lamivir®. Conclusion: The cross-linked starch showed promising results in terms of controlling the release behavior of the active drug from the matrix. The hydrophilic matrix synthesized by cross-linking could be used with a variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients for making their controlled/sustained release formulations.

Concepts: Pharmacology, In vivo, Starch, In vitro, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient, Sago


Directly compressible co-processed excipient systems facilitate orodispersible tablets (ODTs) manufacturing. Despite several excipient systems available, it is reported that the incorporation of high drug dose into the tablet mass may negatively affect both disintegration and mechanical properties. Therefore the influence of drug properties on the quality of orodispersible tablets was investigated. Fast dissolving tablet matrix was made of a co-processed excipient system F-Melt. Two grades of F-Melt that differed in composition, particle shape, and specific surface area were used to form tablet matrix. Ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, and diltiazem hydrochloride were chosen as model drugs of different physicochemical properties such as solubility, particle size, and shape. Ninety formulations containing 12.5, 25, or 50 wt% of the model drug and F-Melt type C or M were prepared by direct compression. The quality of tablets was examined on the base of disintegration time, wetting time, mechanical resistance and texture analysis. The results showed that F-Melt grade, drug solubility, and its dose had an influence on the quality of tablets. From ninety formulations prepared, only four batches containing F-Melt type C and 12.5 wt% of ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, or diltiazem hydrochloride could be classified as ODTs. Their disintegration time ranged from 41 to 144 s. In the case of F-Melt type M, tablets disintegrating within 101 s of friability below 1% could be prepared only if 12.5 wt% of diclofenac sodium was incorporated into the tablet mass.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient


Content uniformity (CU) of tablets is a critical property that needs to be well controlled in pharmaceutical products. Methods that predict the CU accurately can greatly help in reducing the development efforts. This article presents a statistical mechanical framework for predicting CU based on first principles at the molecular level. The tablet is modeled as an open system that can be treated as a grand canonical ensemble to calculate fluctuations in the number of granules and thus the CU. Exact analytical solutions to hard sphere mixture systems are applied to derive an expression for the CU and elucidate the different factors that impact CU. The model was tested against literature data and a large set of tablet formulations specifically made and analyzed for CU using a model active pharmaceutical ingredient. The formulations covered the effect of granule size, percentage loading, and tablet weight on the CU. The model is able to predict the mean experimental coefficient of variation (CV) with good success and captures all the elements that impact the CU. The predictions of the model serve as a theoretical lower limit for the mean CV (for infinite batches or tablets) that can be expected during manufacturing assuming the best processing conditions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 101:4501-4515, 2012.

Concepts: Scientific method, Pharmacology, Prediction, Futurology, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient


Swellable core technology (SCT) represents a broadly applicable oral osmotic drug delivery platform for the controlled release of drugs. SCT tablets control drug delivery by using osmosis to regulate the influx of water into the tablet’s core. The tablet consists of two layers; drug layer and sweller layer, with a semi-permeable membrane coating and delivery port located in the drug layer side of the tablet. The key component of SCT formulations is polyethylene oxide (PEO), which is typically wet granulated with organic solvents to prevent rapid gel hydration observed during contact with aqueous environments. However, the use of organic solvents has their own environmental and cost considerations which make this form of processing undesirable. To overcome this issue, dry granulation can be employed. However, PEO is a very plastic material and problems may be encountered during the tableting process, when work hardening occurs upon double compression. The addition of compression aids to the drug layer will help to increase the roll force when generating ribbons-reducing fines and segregation potential-while also reducing work hardening effects which impact tablet friability. The five compression aids used in this study were microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylitol, di-calcium phosphate (anhydrous), lactose monohydrate and starch. The work undertaken here studies the compression properties of the drug layer blends with different levels of the five compression aids as part of the formulation. Roller compaction properties are also varied to provide granules with differing solid fractions. The results of this study indicate that addition of microcrystalline cellulose in the formulation in levels between 10-30% significantly improve the tablet hardness at lower tablet compression forces. Further work is required to investigate the impact on dissolution.

Concepts: Oxygen, Pharmacology, Ethanol, Cellulose, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient, Osmosis


This study demonstrates the use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with a nano quantity analyte detector for the retention, separation and detection of magnesium from magnesium stearate in tablet formulations for a drug product formulation blend containing a hydrochloride salt of a weakly basic compound as the active ingredient. The nano quantity analyte detector can provide direct detection of inactive excipients and inorganic salts lacking ultraviolet chromophores, as well as, all non-volatile compounds. The separation was accomplished using a SeQuant ZIC(®)-HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of 32.5:32.5:35 of acetone/methanol/ammonium formate buffer (150mM, pH 4.5). Common validation parameters were evaluated to assess the method’s quantitative potential for magnesium (from magnesium stearate) including: linearity, accuracy, specificity, solution stability, repeatability, and intermediate precision. Overall, the method described in this report proved to be very robust and represents a novel technique to conveniently separate and detect magnesium from magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical preparations both quickly and accurately.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chemistry, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Gas chromatography, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient


Introduction: Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have emerged as one of the novel solid oral dosage forms with a potential to deliver a wide range of drug candidates to both paediatric and geriatric patient populations. Of the plethora of available technologies, compression of excipients offers a cost-effective and translatable methodology for the manufacture of ODTs. Areas covered: The review is a modest endeavour from the authors to assemble literature published over the last couple of decades on formulation development of compressed ODT. It describes the main ODT excipients used since the introduction of this dosage form in the 1990s and explores the switch from cellulose-based excipients towards sugar/polyols. Furthermore, it unfolds the key properties of ODT fillers, binders and disintegrants with an emphasis on their advantages and drawbacks. The review also provides a critical assessment of the various strategies employed for performance enhancement of compressed ODT with a focus on the underlying mechanisms for fast disintegration and acceptable mechanical strength. Expert opinion: Recent increase in the total number of compression-based technologies for ODT development promises to reduce the manufacturing cost of this dosage form in the future. However, some of the developed methods may affect the stability of tablets due to susceptibility to moisture, collapse of pores or the generation of less stable polymorphs which require rigorous testing prior to commercialization.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Novel, Strength of materials, Tablet, Excipient, Dosage forms, Compression, Dosage form


Water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets provide a high degree of information about the disintegration mechanisms and process itself. An apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of water uptake and force development of tablets is presented, and the gathered data are analysed.

Concepts: Energy, Chemical engineering, Tablet, Excipient, Tablet PC, Disintegration


The SeDeM Expert Diagram System (SeDeM EDS) was originally developed to provide information about the suitability of powders to produce direct compressible tablets. Multiple-unit pellet systems (MUPS) are dosage forms consisting of pellets compressed into tablets or loaded into hard gelatine capsules. The aim of this study was to apply the SeDeM EDS to different size pellets (i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm) containing different APIs (i.e. doxylamine, ibuprofen or paracetamol) to determine which properties should be corrected to yield MUPS tablet formulations. The SeDeM parameter tests were conducted on the pellets, selected excipients, intermediate blends and final blends. The study showed that the properties of the pellets depended on the active ingredient and pellet size. The SeDeM compressibility indices indicated that the final pellet blends should be suitable for compression into MUPS tablets. MUPS tablets were prepared from the final blends and evaluated in terms of physico-chemical properties and dissolution profiles. Only three of the MUPS tablet formulations containing ibuprofen and one MUPS tablet formulation containing paracetamol failed content uniformity. The water solubility of the APIs as well as the pellet size (surface area exposed to the dissolution medium) attributed to the difference in drug dissolution rate.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical drug, Active ingredient, Solvation, Pharmaceutical formulation, Tablet, Excipient