SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Excimer laser

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Combination of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL) and excimer laser ablation is a promising therapy for treating corneal ectasia. The cornea is strengthened by cross-linking, while the irregular astigmatism is reduced by laser ablation. This study aims to compare the efficacy of excimer laser ablation on porcine corneas with and without cross-linking.

Concepts: LASIK, Contact lens, Keratoconus, Corneal transplantation, Refractive surgery, Laser, Cornea, Excimer laser

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To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz.

Concepts: Excimer, Quantum mechanics, Nuclear fusion, Light, LASIK, Laser, Excimer laser

2

To identify features of ablations and trajectories that correlate with optimal seizure control and minimize the risk of neurocognitive deficits in patients undergoing laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) for mesiotemporal epilepsy (mTLE).

Concepts: Seizure, Laser interstitial thermal therapy, Epilepsy, Passive fire protection, Excimer laser, Medical terms, Endometrial ablation, Ablation

2

Analytical probes capable of mapping molecular composition at the nanoscale are of critical importance to materials research, biology and medicine. Mass spectral imaging makes it possible to visualize the spatial organization of multiple molecular components at a sample’s surface. However, it is challenging for mass spectral imaging to map molecular composition in three dimensions (3D) with submicron resolution. Here we describe a mass spectral imaging method that exploits the high 3D localization of absorbed extreme ultraviolet laser light and its fundamentally distinct interaction with matter to determine molecular composition from a volume as small as 50 zl in a single laser shot. Molecular imaging with a lateral resolution of 75 nm and a depth resolution of 20 nm is demonstrated. These results open opportunities to visualize chemical composition and chemical changes in 3D at the nanoscale.

Concepts: Infrared, Depth perception, Excimer laser, Ultraviolet, Chemistry, Dimension, Light, Laser

1

The use of femtosecond laser pulses allows precise and thermal-damage-free removal of material (ablation) with wide-ranging scientific, medical and industrial applications. However, its potential is limited by the low speeds at which material can be removed and the complexity of the associated laser technology. The complexity of the laser design arises from the need to overcome the high pulse energy threshold for efficient ablation. However, the use of more powerful lasers to increase the ablation rate results in unwanted effects such as shielding, saturation and collateral damage from heat accumulation at higher laser powers. Here we circumvent this limitation by exploiting ablation cooling, in analogy to a technique routinely used in aerospace engineering. We apply ultrafast successions (bursts) of laser pulses to ablate the target material before the residual heat deposited by previous pulses diffuses away from the processing region. Proof-of-principle experiments on various substrates demonstrate that extremely high repetition rates, which make ablation cooling possible, reduce the laser pulse energies needed for ablation and increase the efficiency of the removal process by an order of magnitude over previously used laser parameters. We also demonstrate the removal of brain tissue at two cubic millimetres per minute and dentine at three cubic millimetres per minute without any thermal damage to the bulk.

Concepts: Collateral damage, Microwave, Light, Excimer laser, Lasers, Thermodynamics, Energy, Laser

1

Balloon catheters have been designed to facilitate pulmonary vein (PV) isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). The visually guided laser balloon (VGLB) employs laser energy to ablate tissue under direct visual guidance.

Concepts: Cardiac electrophysiology, Excimer laser, Medical terms, Atrial flutter, Radiofrequency ablation, Blood, Heart, Atrial fibrillation

0

Image-guided ablation of thyroid disease is increasingly being commonly reported. Techniques including ethanol injection and thermal ablation using radio-frequency, laser, and microwave devices have been described. Minimally invasive approaches to the management of benign cystic, solid, and functional thyroid nodules as well as both primary and recurrent thyroid malignancy have been reported. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence relating to image-guided ablation of thyroid disease with a focus on clinical outcomes and complication rates for patients treated with this minimally invasive approach.

Concepts: The Current, Passive fire protection, Excimer laser, Minimally invasive, Endometrial ablation, Ablation, Medical terms

0

To evaluate and compare the uniformity of angle Kappa adjustment between Oculyzer and Topolyzer Vario topography guided ablation of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) by EX500 excimer laser for myopia.

Concepts: In situ, Comparison, Ophthalmology, Laser, LASIK, Excimer laser

0

The aim of the present study was to assess the function of dermoscopy in evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of tacrolimus ointment plus 308-nm excimer laser combination therapy in patients with localized vitiligo. A total of 147 patients with localized vitiligo (progressive disease, n=92; stable period, n=55) were enrolled and received combination therapy for 12 weeks. The condition of the skin lesions was monitored by dermoscopy and visual observation. At the initial visit, skin lesions were observed in 61 progressive and 19 stable patients. Residual perifollicular pigmentation was more abundant in progressive-stage patients than in stable-stage patients, whereas the presence of perilesional hyperpigmentation was obviously lower in patients with progressive vitiligo. After 12 weeks of combination therapy, marked differences in residual perifollicular pigmentation were identified between the progressive- and stable-stage patients. Dermoscopy and visual observation indicated that the 12-week treatment efficacy in patients with progressive disease was significantly higher than in those with stable disease and that assessment by dermoscopy was superior to visual observation at 8 or 12 weeks of treatment. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the disease stage, vitiliginous areas and disease course were risk factors associated with the treatment efficacy of the combination therapy. In conclusion, dermoscopy may be used as an effective means of vitiligo therapy assessment to provide an accurate and scientific evaluation of treatment efficacy for localized vitiligo patients.

Concepts: Excimer laser, Cure, Assessment, Medicine, Efficacy, Evaluation, Logistic regression, Regression analysis

0

The degree of laser pulse overlapping in a laser scanning path has a significant impact on the ablation regime in the laser machining of a micro-texture. In this Letter, a nanosecond pulsed laser is used to prepare the micro-scaled groove on WC-8Co cermet under different scanning speeds. It is observed that as the scanning speed increases, the ablated trace morphology in the first scanning pass transits from a succession of intermittent deep dimples to the consecutive overlapped shallow pits. The test result also indicates that ablated trace morphology with respect to the low scanning speed stems from a plume shielding effect. Moreover, the ablation regime considering the shielding effect in micro-groove formation process is clarified. The critical scanning speed that can circumvent the shielding effect is also summarized with respect to different laser powers.

Concepts: Ultraviolet, Excimer laser, Laser applications, Laser cutting, Laser ablation, Laser