Concept: Evolutionary medicine
To postulate a new possible cause of a unilaterally reduced arm swing in addition to the known medical conditions such as shoulder pathology, Erb’s palsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease.
Influenza is a highly infectious viral disease that is particularly common in the winter months. Oscillococcinum(®) is a patented homeopathic medicine that is made from a 1% solution of wild duck heart and liver extract, which is then serially diluted 200 times with water and alcohol.
Clinical medicine has neglected the fact that the make-up of organs and body functions, as well as the human-specific repertoire of behaviors and defenses against pathogens or other potential dangers are the product of adaptation by natural and sexual selection. Even more, for many clinicians it does not seem straightforward to accept a role of evolution in the understanding of disease, let alone, treatment and prevention.Accordingly, this Editorial seeks to set the stage for an article collection that aims at dealing precisely with the question of why evolutionary aspects of health and disease are not only interesting, but necessary to improve clinical medicine.
Patients' stories of their illnesses help bridge the divide between patients and providers, facilitating more humane medical care. Illness narratives have been classified into three types: restitution (expectation of recovery), chaos (suffering and loss), and quest (unexpected positive effect from illness). Undiagnosed patients have unique illness experiences and obtaining their narratives would provide insights into the medical and emotional impact of living with an undiagnosed illness. Adults and children with undiagnosed diseases apply to be evaluated by the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN). Written illness narratives from 40 UDN applicants, including 20 adult probands who applied for themselves and 20 parents who applied for their children, were analyzed for: 1) narrative content and 2) narrative type.
The scope of illnesses that may befall international travelers is broad. A guide to preparing for the preventable causes of illness is provided. Physicians may find it useful in counseling their patients who travel internationally.
We are delighted to announce a new section in the Journal of Translational Medicine, ‘Illnesses of Unknown Etiology’. This section aims to provide a translational medicine forum for the publication of research on illnesses, multisystem diseases and syndromes of unknown etiology. Examples of these include Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Syndrome.
In 2017, CDC initiated a national observance, Fungal Disease Awareness Week, to increase awareness about fungal diseases, which can cause severe illness but frequently go undiagnosed. Awareness is one of the most important means to reduce delays in diagnosis and treatment, which can lead to better health outcomes and save lives.
The global burden of disease is increasingly dominated by non-communicable diseases.These diseases are less amenable to curative and preventative interventions than communicable disease. This presents a challenge to medical practice and medical research, both of which are experiencing diminishing returns from increasing investment.
Giardia is a protozoan parasite of public health relevance that causes gastroenteritis in a wide range of hosts. Two genetically distinct lineages (assemblages A and B) are responsible for the human disease. Although it is clear that differences in virulence occur, pathogenesis and virulence of Giardia remains poorly understood.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in maintaining the specialized microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS), and enabling communication with the systemic compartment. BBB changes occur in several CNS pathologies. Here, we review disruptive and non-disruptive BBB changes in systemic infections and other forms of systemic inflammation, and how this may affect CNS function in health and disease. We first describe the structure and function of the BBB, and outline the techniques used to study the BBB in vitro, and in animal and human settings. We then summarise the evidence from a range of models linking BBB changes with systemic inflammation, and the underlying mechanisms. The clinical relevance of these BBB changes during systemic inflammation are discussed in the context of clinically-apparent syndromes such as sickness behaviour, delirium, and septic encephalopathy, as well as neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis. We review emerging evidence for two novel concepts: (1) a heightened sensitivity of the diseased, versus healthy, BBB to systemic inflammation, and (2) the contribution of BBB changes induced by systemic inflammation to progression of the primary disease process.