Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: European Economic Area


The UK is dependent on international doctors, with a greater proportion of non-UK qualified doctors working in its universal health care system than in any other European country, except Ireland and Norway. The terms of the UK exit from the European Union can reduce the ability of European Economic Area (EEA) qualified doctors to work in the UK, while new visa requirements will significantly restrict the influx of non-EEA doctors. We aimed to explore the implications of policy restrictions on immigration, by regionally and spatially describing the characteristics of general practitioners (GPs) by region of medical qualification and the characteristics of the populations they serve.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Europe, Immigration, Spain, Norway, European Economic Area


The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27).

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Member State of the European Union, Slovakia, Malta, Treaty of Lisbon, Poland, European Economic Area


Calcium hydroxylapatite filler (CaHA; Radiesse) is a synthetic, non-animal derived product composed of minerals that occur naturally in bone and teeth. Following its development in the US, initial approval by the US FDA for non-aesthetic indications and CE marking in Europe, it was used off FDA-labeling for aesthetic purposes. Its use has grown further since its FDA approval in 2006 for long-lasting correction of moderate to severe wrinkles and folds. It is a popular filler for volume restoration to the face, and also to nonfacial areas such as the dorsum of the hands.

Concepts: Bone, Volume, Face, Hydroxylapatite, Phosphate minerals, Food and Drug Administration, European Economic Area, CE mark


The HIV burden is increasing in older adults in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). We investigated factors associated with HIV diagnosis in older adults in the 31 EU/EEA countries during a 12 year period.

Concepts: European Union, Europe, Norway, European Economic Area


The objective of this study was to determine the nature of evidence used to support the withdrawal of marketing authorisations of drug products for safety reasons throughout the European Union (EU) between 2002 and 2011.

Concepts: European Union, United States, United Kingdom, Estonia, Denmark, Norway, European integration, European Economic Area


Malignant blood disorders are a leading contributor to cancer incidence and mortality across Europe. Despite their burden, no study has assessed the economic effect of blood cancers in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland.

Concepts: European Union, Sweden, Europe, Denmark, Norway, Italy, Council of Europe, European Economic Area


Blood disorders comprise a wide range of diseases including anaemia, malignant blood disorders, and haemorrhagic disorders. Although they are a common cause of disease, no systematic cost-of-illness studies have been done to assess the economic effect of non-malignant blood disorders in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries of the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland.

Concepts: European Union, Sweden, Europe, German language, Denmark, Norway, Council of Europe, European Economic Area


In addition to mandatory CE marking (“CE” representing ConformitĂ© EuropĂ©enne, with the CE marking being a symbol of free marketability in the European Economic Area) for medical devices, there are various seals, initiatives, action groups, etc, in the health app context. However, whether manufacturers use them to distinguish their apps and attach relevance to them is unclear.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Switzerland, The Europeans, Denmark, European Economic Area, Liechtenstein, CE mark


Low vegetable consumption in children is a concern in many EU countries, fewer than one fifth of children in Europe consume the WHO recommended amounts. Systematic studies demonstrate that experience with a variety of vegetables early in childhood can promote later consumption as early dietary habits often track into adulthood. This study examined pre-school children’s experience with vegetables across three European countries in order to assess cultural differences, effects of age and culinary practices. Mothers of pre-school children (N=234) in the UK (N=71), Denmark (N=93) and France (N=70) completed a survey assessing parental and infant familiarity, frequency of offering and liking for 56 vegetables as well as preparation techniques for these vegetables. Analyses revealed that although children aged 25 to 36 months had been introduced to the greatest number of vegetables, children aged 6 to 12 months were offered vegetables more frequently and had a higher reported liking for these vegetables. UK children’s liking was related to frequency of maternal intake and frequency of offering. Denmark had introduced the greatest number of vegetables and offered vegetables more frequently than both the UK and France. Choice of preparation methods differed between countries while choice of seasonings was similar. Results suggest increasing variety and frequency of vegetable offering between 6 and 12 months, when children are most receptive, may promote vegetable consumption in children.

Concepts: Nutrition, Death, European Union, United Kingdom, Europe, England, Cooking, European Economic Area


The serious adverse events associated with metal on metal hip replacements have highlighted the importance of improving methods for monitoring surgical implants. The new European Union (EU) device regulation will enforce post-marketing surveillance based on registries among other surveillance tools. Europe has a common regulatory environment, a common market for medical devices, and extensive experience with joint replacement registries. In this context, we elaborate how joint replacement registries, while building on existing structure and data, can better ensure safety and balance risks and benefits.

Concepts: European Union, United Kingdom, Europe, Hip replacement, Italy, Security, European Economic Area, Single market