Concept: European Economic Area
The UK is dependent on international doctors, with a greater proportion of non-UK qualified doctors working in its universal health care system than in any other European country, except Ireland and Norway. The terms of the UK exit from the European Union can reduce the ability of European Economic Area (EEA) qualified doctors to work in the UK, while new visa requirements will significantly restrict the influx of non-EEA doctors. We aimed to explore the implications of policy restrictions on immigration, by regionally and spatially describing the characteristics of general practitioners (GPs) by region of medical qualification and the characteristics of the populations they serve.
Discrepancies in cancer incidence and mortality and its relationship to health expenditure in the 27 European Union member states
- Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO
- Published about 6 years ago
The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27).
The HIV burden is increasing in older adults in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). We investigated factors associated with HIV diagnosis in older adults in the 31 EU/EEA countries during a 12 year period.
The objective of this study was to determine the nature of evidence used to support the withdrawal of marketing authorisations of drug products for safety reasons throughout the European Union (EU) between 2002 and 2011.
Malignant blood disorders are a leading contributor to cancer incidence and mortality across Europe. Despite their burden, no study has assessed the economic effect of blood cancers in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland.
Blood disorders comprise a wide range of diseases including anaemia, malignant blood disorders, and haemorrhagic disorders. Although they are a common cause of disease, no systematic cost-of-illness studies have been done to assess the economic effect of non-malignant blood disorders in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries of the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland.
In addition to mandatory CE marking (“CE” representing Conformité Européenne, with the CE marking being a symbol of free marketability in the European Economic Area) for medical devices, there are various seals, initiatives, action groups, etc, in the health app context. However, whether manufacturers use them to distinguish their apps and attach relevance to them is unclear.
Low vegetable consumption in children is a concern in many EU countries, fewer than one fifth of children in Europe consume the WHO recommended amounts. Systematic studies demonstrate that experience with a variety of vegetables early in childhood can promote later consumption as early dietary habits often track into adulthood. This study examined pre-school children’s experience with vegetables across three European countries in order to assess cultural differences, effects of age and culinary practices. Mothers of pre-school children (N=234) in the UK (N=71), Denmark (N=93) and France (N=70) completed a survey assessing parental and infant familiarity, frequency of offering and liking for 56 vegetables as well as preparation techniques for these vegetables. Analyses revealed that although children aged 25 to 36 months had been introduced to the greatest number of vegetables, children aged 6 to 12 months were offered vegetables more frequently and had a higher reported liking for these vegetables. UK children’s liking was related to frequency of maternal intake and frequency of offering. Denmark had introduced the greatest number of vegetables and offered vegetables more frequently than both the UK and France. Choice of preparation methods differed between countries while choice of seasonings was similar. Results suggest increasing variety and frequency of vegetable offering between 6 and 12 months, when children are most receptive, may promote vegetable consumption in children.
The serious adverse events associated with metal on metal hip replacements have highlighted the importance of improving methods for monitoring surgical implants. The new European Union (EU) device regulation will enforce post-marketing surveillance based on registries among other surveillance tools. Europe has a common regulatory environment, a common market for medical devices, and extensive experience with joint replacement registries. In this context, we elaborate how joint replacement registries, while building on existing structure and data, can better ensure safety and balance risks and benefits.
The EU offers a suitable milieu for the comparison and harmonisation of healthcare across different languages, cultures, and jurisdictions (albeit with a supranational legal framework), which could provide improvements in healthcare standards across the bloc. There are specific ethico-legal issues with the use of data in healthcare research that mandate a different approach from other forms of research. The use of healthcare data over a long period of time is similar to the use of tissue in biobanks. There is a low risk to subjects but it is impossible to gain specific informed consent given the future possibilities for research. Large amounts of data on a subject present a finite risk of re-identification. Consequently, there is a balancing act between this risk and retaining sufficient utility of the data. Anonymising methods need to take into account the circumstances of data sharing to enable an appropriate balance in all cases. There are ethical and policy advantages to exceeding the legal requirements and thereby securing the social licence for research. This process would require the examination and comparison of data protection laws across the trading bloc to produce an ethico-legal framework compatible with the requirements of all member states. Seven EU jurisdictions are given consideration in this critique.