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Concept: Eugenia

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The present work reports the purification and partial characterization of an antibacterial lectin (EmaL) obtained from Eugenia malaccensis seeds as well as the evaluation of its effect in the daily topical treatment of repairing process of cutaneous wounds in mice.

Concepts: Present, Wound healing, Healing, Eugenia

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Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

Concepts: Soil, Fruit, Plants, Prunus, Biomass, Eugenia, Native plant, Eugenia uniflora

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Catechin is found in several natural sources, as Eugenia dysenterica and Syzygium cumini extracts. Its antioxidant and UV-protective properties suggest a potential use in cosmetic and dermatological formulations. A simple analytical method capable of giving support to experiments performed along the development of topical formulations containing this natural substance (i.e., drug assay, skin permeation and stability studies), however, is still demanded. Thus, this work aimed to develop and validate a selective HPLC method for catechin determination during the development of topical formulations. Separation was achieved using a RP-C18 column (300 x 3.9 mm; 10 μm), with a mobile phase of methanol/phosphoric acid 0.01 M (15: 85, v/v), flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, temperature set at 40°C, and UV detection at 230 nm. Method was linear in a range from 0.5 to 10.0 μg/mL (r = 0.9998); precise with an overall variation coefficient of 5.5% and accurate with catechin recovery from the skin layers higher than 85%. Additionally, the method was sensitive (limit of detection = 0.109 μg/mL, limit of quantification = 0.342 μg/mL) and selective against plant extracts, skin matrices and formulation interferents, as well as catechin degradation products. It was also robust regarding both methodology parameters and analytical stability.

Concepts: Natural selection, Measurement, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Skin, Eugenia, Syzygium

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In the context of developing a new natural product-based cosmetic, the in vitro efficacy and safety evaluations of a complex botanical mixture based on Eugenia dysenterica leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EDE) (2.5-1000μg/mL) were carried out. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated the presence of the tannin (ellagic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin and gallic acid) which characterize the EDE as a polyphenol-rich mixture. Using HFF-1 fibroblasts, it was shown that EDE promoted cell regeneration after UVA exposure. It also led to the inhibition of the collagenase, elastase and tyrosinase enzymes, which are involved in skin-related disorders. In terms of toxicological evaluation, the EDE was classified as non-phototoxic through the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test (OECD N° 432, 2004) and non-eye irritant by Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (OECD N° 437, 2013) assay, in conjunction with corneal histomorphometric analysis. Furthermore, the EDE has no skin sensitization potential as demonstrated by a two-out-of-three prediction model [protein-binding/haptenization (OECD N° 442C, 2015), keratinocyte and dendritic cell activations]. In addition, it was shown that the EDE seems to be non-genotoxic through the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (OECD N° 487, 2014) using HepG2 cells. When considered together, these findings support the use of EDE botanical mixture in cosmetic/pharmaceutical products.

Concepts: Protein, Collagen, In vitro, Tannin, Gallic acid, Pomegranate, Raspberry, Eugenia

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A wide number of studies dealing with mosquito control focus on toxicity screenings of whole plant essential oils, while limited efforts shed light on main molecules responsible of toxicity, as well as their mechanisms of action on non-target organisms. In this study, GC-MS shed light on main essential oil components extracted from leaves of the Suriname cherry Eugenia uniflora, i.e., curzerene (35.7%), trans-β-elemenone (11.5%), and γ-elemene (13.6%), testing them on Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. Non-target toxicity experiments were carried out on four species of aquatic larvivorous organisms, including fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs. The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves tested on An. subpictus, Ae. Albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus showed LC50 of 31.08, 33.50, and 36.35 μg/ml, respectively. Curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene were extremely toxic to An. subpictus (LC50 = 4.14, 6.13, and 10.53 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 4.57, 6.74, and 11.29 μg/ml), and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 5.01, 7.32, and 12.18 μg/ml). The essential oil from E. uniflora leaves, curzerene, trans-β-elemenone, and γ-elemene showed low toxicity to larvivorous fishes, backswimmers, and waterbugs, with LC50 ranging from 303.77 to 6765.56 μg/ml. Predator safety factor (PSF) ranged from 55.72 to 273.45. Overall, we believe that curzerene isolated from the essential oil from E. uniflora leaves can represent an ideal molecule to formulate novel mosquito larvicides, due to its extremely low LC50 on all tested mosquito vectors (4.14-5.01 μg/ml), which far encompasses most of the botanical pesticides tested till now. Notably, the above-mentioned LC50 did not damage the four aquatic predators tested in this study.

Concepts: Malaria, Mosquito, Toxicity, Culicidae, Pest insects, Essential oil, Oil, Eugenia

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Eugenia dysenterica ex DC Mart. (Myrtaceae) is a Brazilian tree with pharmacological and biological properties. The aqueous leaf extract, rich in polyphenols, was tested in the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y to evaluate its effect on cell viability. The extract and two isolated compounds were also assessed for the potential inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme related to Alzheimer’s disease. A simple chromatographic method using Sephadex LH-20 was developed to separate catechin and quercetin from the aqueous leaf extract of E. dysenterica. Identification was carried out by spectroscopic techniques IR, UV, and 1H and 13C NMR. The IC50 values were obtained by constructing dose-response curves on a graph with percentage inhibition versus log of inhibitor concentration and compared with physostigmine, a well-known AChE inhibitor. The extract was toxic for SHSY5Y cells at concentrations higher than 7.8 μg/ml given for 24 h. The decline in SH-SY5Y cell viability appears to be related to its antiproliferative activity. The extract also showed relatively moderate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 66.33% ± 0.52% at 1.0 mg/ml with an IC50 value of 155.20 ± 2.09 μg/ml. Physostigmine, quercetin, and catechin showed IC50 values of 18.69 ± 0.07, 46.59 ± 0.49, and 42.39 ± 0.67 μg/ml, respectively.

Concepts: Cell, Enzyme, Concentration, Neurology, Enzyme inhibitor, Acetylcholine, Dose-response relationship, Eugenia

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The study about Eugenia dysenterica led to the isolation of 3-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-oic (1), 3-acetyl-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and isoquercetin (3) from the stem barks, and of 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol (4), methyl 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (5), methyl 4-hydroxyphenyl propionate (6), E-methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate (7), quercetin-3-O-(6ꞌꞌ-O-galloyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (8) and quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (9) from the leaves. The structures 1-9 were set through the analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 2, 3 and 5-8 were reported for the first time in the Eugenia genus. Compound 8 reduced cell viability and presented IC50 values 40.3 and 36.7 μM, for the CCRF-CEM and the Kasumi-1 cells, respectively.

Concepts: Protein, Organism, Proton, Chemical element, Chemical compound, Chemical structure, Eugenia

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Eugenia spp. are used in popular medicine in the treatment of pain, diabetes, intestinal disorders and cough. The aim of the work is to evaluate, ex vivo and in vivo, the anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroethanolic extracts of the leaves of Eugenia aurata (EA) and Eugenia punicifolia HBK (EP) upon neutrophils.

Concepts: Inflammation, Monocyte, In vivo, Anti-inflammatory, Neutrophil granulocyte, The Work, Neutrophilia, Eugenia

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Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) has been widely used in the folk medicine and it presents phytochemicals constituents associated to antioxidant properties.

Concepts: Antioxidant, In vivo, In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Myrtaceae, Eugenia

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Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian “Cerrados” (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e  = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e  = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m  = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m  - t s  = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev  = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

Concepts: Genetics, Reproduction, Population ecology, Population genetics, Effective population size, Population size, Eugenia, Ecological metrics