Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Esophageal dilatation


Pneumatic dilation (PD) and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) can be definitive therapies for achalasia; recent data suggest comparable efficacy. However, risk must also be considered. We reviewed the major complication rate of PD and LHM in a high-volume center and reviewed the corresponding literature.

Concepts: Surgery, Review, Major, Achalasia, Heller myotomy, Esophageal dilatation


The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD) in childhood benign esophageal strictures. The medical records of 38 patients who underwent EBD from 1999 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features, diagnoses, features of strictures, frequency and number of EBD, complications, outcome, and recurrence data were recorded. Median age was 1.5 years (0-14), and female/male ratio was 17/21 (n = 38). Primary diagnoses were corrosive esophageal stricture (n = 19) and esophageal atresia (n = 19). The length of strictures were less than 5 cm in 78.9% (n = 30). No complication was seen in 86.8% (n = 33). Perforation was seen in 10.5% (n = 4), and recurrent fistula was seen in 2.7% (n = 1). Total treatment lasted for 1 year (1-11). Dysphagia was relieved in 60.5% (n = 23). Recurrence was seen in 31.6% (n = 12). Treatment effectiveness was higher, and complication rates were lower in strictures shorter than 5 cm compared with longer ones (70% vs. 25%, P < 0.05, and 3.4% vs. 37.5%, P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference, treatment effectiveness rates were lower and complication and recurrence rates were higher in corrosive strictures compared with anastomotic ones (P > 0.05). EBD is a safe and efficient treatment choice in esophageal strictures, especially in strictures shorter than 5 cm and anastomotic strictures.

Concepts: Medical terms, Demographics, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal atresia, Recurrence relation, Esophageal stricture, Esophageal dilatation


Often 2-3 graduated pneumatic dilatations (PD) are required to treat achalasia as there is no current intra-procedural predictor of clinical response. Distensibility measurements using functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) may provide an intra-procedural predictor of outcome. Our aim was to determine the optimal criterion for esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility measurements during PD that predicts immediate clinical response.

Concepts: Measurement, Psychometrics, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal dilatation


Pneumatic dilation (PD) is the most popular non-surgical treatment for achalasia. This study investigated predicting factors, including manometric subtypes for symptom recurrence in the long-term, in patients with achalasia treated with a single PD.

Concepts: Achalasia, Esophageal dilatation


The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) reflexively responds to bolus presence within the esophageal lumen, therefore UES metrics can vary in achalasia.

Concepts: Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal dilatation


Esophageal stricture is usually managed with outpatient endoscopic dilation. However, patients with food impaction or failure to thrive undergo inpatient dilation. Esophageal perforation is the most feared complication, and its risk in inpatient setting is unknown.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Esophageal stricture, Esophageal dilatation


In patients with persistent symptoms after Heller myotomy (HM), treatment options include repeat HM, pneumatic dilation, or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of POEM in patients with achalasia with prior HM vs without prior HM.

Concepts: Surgery, Achalasia, Heller myotomy, Esophageal dilatation


The treatment of achalasia is palliative. Pneumatic dilatation (PD) or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) just eliminates the outflow obstruction allowing easier emptying of the esophagus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of a multidisciplinary approach to esophageal achalasia.

Concepts: Surgery, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal cancer, Esophagectomy, Heller myotomy, Barium swallow, Esophageal dilatation


Achalasia is characterized by a functional esophagogastric junction (EGJ) obstruction. The functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) is a method to assess EGJ distensibility. In a homogeneous group of newly diagnosed achalasia patients treated with pneumatic dilation (PD), we aimed (i) to determine whether the assessment of EGJ distensibility has added value in the management of achalasia patients and (ii) to evaluate whether EGJ distensibility differs between achalasia subtypes.

Concepts: Assessment, Value added, Programming language, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal dilatation


The motility of the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is still poorly understood. It is also unclear if the motility of this area may be compromised in patients with achalasia. This study aims to evaluate the motility of the pharynx, UES, and proximal esophagus in patients with esophageal achalasia. Sixty patients with achalasia underwent high-resolution manometry (HRM) (52 % females, mean age 54 years). Esophageal dilatation was classified according to the radiologic diameter in Type I (<4 cm): 6 %; Type II (4-7 cm): 36 %; Type III (7-10 cm): 34 %; and Type IV (>10 cm): 24 %. HRM classified 43 % of the patients as Chicago Type I and 57 % as Type II. Manometric parameters were compared to normal values obtained from a previous study in volunteers. The motility of the velopharynx showed short, premature, and hypertonic contraction. The epiglottis also showed hypertonic contraction. The UES had increased residual pressure. Chicago classification Type II patients had higher UES residual pressure (p = 0.03). The degree of esophageal dilatation did not correlate with manometric parameters. Achalasia may affect the motility of the pharyngo-upper esophageal area. The changes observed may represent functional alterations to prevent aspiration, especially in patients with Chicago classification Type II achalasia.

Concepts: Stomach, Esophagus, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal cancer, Esophagectomy, Barium swallow, Esophageal dilatation