SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Esophageal cancer

153

Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an extremely rare malformation, and standard treatment have not been completely established. By years of clinical research, evidence has been accumulated. We conducted systematic review to assess outcomes of the treatment for CES, especially the role of endoscopic modalities. A total of 144 literatures were screened and reviewed. CES was categorized in fibromuscular thickening, tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) and membranous web, and the frequency was 54%, 30% and 16%, respectively. Therapeutic option includes surgery and dilatation, and surgery tends to be reserved for ineffective dilatation. An essential point is that dilatation for TBR type of CES has low success rate and high rate of perforation. TBR can be distinguished by using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Overall success rate of dilatation for CES with or without case selection by using EUS was 90% and 29%, respectively. Overall rate of perforation with or without case selection was 7% and 24%, respectively. By case selection using EUS, high success rate with low rate of perforation could be achieved. In conclusion, endoscopic dilatation has been established as a primary therapy for CES except TBR type. Repetitive dilatation with gradual step-up might be one of safe ways to minimize the risk of perforation.

Concepts: Medicine, Evaluation methods, Taxonomy, Frequency, Case study, Congenital disorder, Esophageal cancer, Congenital

150

Patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE) are at an increased risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC); thus they may undergo regular endoscopic surveillance. If epithelial changes cannot be unequivocally classified as negative or positive for dysplasia, a diagnosis of indefinite for dysplasia (IND) is recommended. Several biomarkers have been proposed as markers or predictors of neoplasia in the general BE population; however, their significance is not clear in patients with BE-IND. We therefore performed a retrospective study to determine whether expression of these biomarkers was associated with the development of neoplasia in BE-IND patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Retrospective, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, Metaplasia

149

The motility change after per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in achalasia is currently focused on lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This study aims to investigate the correlation of motility response between distal and proximal esophagus after POEM.

Concepts: Digestive system, Stomach, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophagus, Cardia, Achalasia, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal arteries

142

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with obesity and hiatal hernia, and often precedes the development of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). Epidemiological studies show that the global prevalence of GERD is increasing. GERD is a multifactorial disease with a complex genetic architecture. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided initial insights into the genetic background of GERD. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the genetics of GERD and a possible genetic overlap between GERD and BE and EA. The review discusses genes and cellular pathways that have been implicated through GWAS, and provides an outlook on how future molecular research will enhance understanding of GERD pathophysiology.

Concepts: Genetics, Epidemiology, Asthma, Obesity, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

123

Background There is convincing evidence that alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer of the colorectum, breast, larynx, liver, esophagus, oral cavity and pharynx. Most of the data derive from studies that focused on the effect of moderate/high alcohol intakes, while little is known about light alcohol drinking (up to 1 drink/day). Patients and methods We evaluated the association between light drinking and cancer of the colorectum, breast, larynx, liver, esophagus, oral cavity and pharynx, through a meta-analytic approach. We searched epidemiological studies using PubMed, ISI Web of Science and EMBASE, published before December 2010. Results We included 222 articles comprising ∼92 000 light drinkers and 60 000 non-drinkers with cancer. Light drinking was associated with the risk of oropharyngeal cancer [relative risk, RR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.29], esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09-1.56) and female breast cancer (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.02-1.08). We estimated that ∼5000 deaths from oropharyngeal cancer, 24 000 from esophageal SCC and 5000 from breast cancer were attributable to light drinking in 2004 worldwide. No association was found for colorectum, liver and larynx tumors. Conclusions Light drinking increases the risk of cancer of oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus and female breast.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Breast cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Esophagus, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

79

Mounting evidence suggests a causal relationship between specific bacterial infections and the development of certain malignancies. However, the possible role of the keystone periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the presence of P. gingivalis in esophageal mucosa, and the relationship between P. gingivalis infection and the diagnosis and prognosis of ESCC.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Disease, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Lung cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Esophageal cancer

70

Endoscopic cryotherapy can eradicate neoplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE). A new contact cryoballoon focal ablation system (CbFAS)) freezes esophageal mucosa with nitrous oxide. We studied the safety and efficacy of CbFAS for complete eradication of neoplastic Barrett’s esophagus.

Concepts: Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

49

We report a biomarker-based non-endoscopic method for detecting Barrett’s esophagus (BE) based on detecting methylated DNAs retrieved via a swallowable balloon-based esophageal sampling device. BE is the precursor of, and a major recognized risk factor for, developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopy, the current standard for BE detection, is not cost-effective for population screening. We performed genome-wide screening to ascertain regions targeted for recurrent aberrant cytosine methylation in BE, identifying high-frequency methylation within the CCNA1 locus. We tested CCNA1 DNA methylation as a BE biomarker in cytology brushings of the distal esophagus from 173 individuals with or without BE. CCNA1 DNA methylation demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.95 for discriminating BE-related metaplasia and neoplasia cases versus normal individuals, performing identically to methylation of VIM DNA, an established BE biomarker. When combined, the resulting two biomarker panel was 95% sensitive and 91% specific. These results were replicated in an independent validation cohort of 149 individuals who were assayed using the same cutoff values for test positivity established in the training population. To progress toward non-endoscopic esophageal screening, we engineered a well-tolerated, swallowable, encapsulated balloon device able to selectively sample the distal esophagus within 5 min. In balloon samples from 86 individuals, tests of CCNA1 plus VIM DNA methylation detected BE metaplasia with 90.3% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Combining the balloon sampling device with molecular assays of CCNA1 plus VIM DNA methylation enables an efficient, well-tolerated, sensitive, and specific method of screening at-risk populations for BE.

Concepts: DNA, Restriction enzyme, Type I and type II errors, DNA methylation, Methylation, DNA methyltransferase, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

30

Also available: Consumer Reports Patient Resource on High-Value Care for GERD BACKGROUND: Upper endoscopy is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Evidence demonstrates that it is indicated only in certain situations, and inappropriate use generates unnecessary costs and exposes patients to harms without improving outcomes. METHODS: The Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians reviewed evidence regarding the indications for, and yield of, upper endoscopy in the setting of GERD, and to highlight how clinicians can increase the delivery of high-value health care. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: Upper endoscopy is indicated in men and women with heartburn and alarm symptoms (dysphagia, bleeding, anemia, weight loss, and recurrent vomiting). BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 2: Upper endoscopy is indicated in men and women with:      Typical GERD symptoms that persist despite a therapeutic trial of 4 to 8 weeks of twice-daily proton-pump inhibitor therapy.      Severe erosive esophagitis after a 2-month course of proton-pump inhibitor therapy to assess healing and rule out Barrett esophagus. Recurrent endoscopy after this follow-up examination is not indicated in the absence of Barrett esophagus.      History of esophageal stricture who have recurrent symptoms of dysphagia. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 3: Upper endoscopy may be indicated:      In men older than 50 years with chronic GERD symptoms (symptoms for more than 5 years) and additional risk factors (nocturnal reflux symptoms, hiatal hernia, elevated body mass index, tobacco use, and intra-abdominal distribution of fat) to detect esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus.      For surveillance evaluation in men and women with a history of Barrett esophagus. In men and women with Barrett esophagus and no dysplasia, surveillance examinations should occur at intervals no more frequently than 3 to 5 years. More frequent intervals are indicated in patients with Barrett esophagus and dysplasia.

Concepts: Obesity, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Achalasia, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, Esophageal stricture

29

Bacteria may play a role in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), although evidence is limited to cross-sectional studies. In this study, we examined the relationship of oral microbiota with EAC and ESCC risk in a prospective study nested in two cohorts. Oral bacteria were assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in prediagnostic mouthwash samples from n = 81/160 EAC and n = 25/50 ESCC cases/matched controls. Findings were largely consistent across both cohorts. Metagenome content was predicted using PiCRUST. We examined associations between centered log-ratio transformed taxon or functional pathway abundances and risk using conditional logistic regression adjusting for BMI, smoking, and alcohol. We found the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia to be associated with higher risk of EAC. Furthermore, we found that depletion of the commensal genus Neisseria and the species Streptococcus pneumoniae was associated with lower EAC risk. Bacterial biosynthesis of carotenoids was also associated with protection against EAC. Finally, the abundance of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis trended with higher risk of ESCC. Overall, our findings have potential implications for the early detection and prevention of EAC and ESCC. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6777-87. ©2017 AACR.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Pneumonia, Ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, Squamous cell carcinoma, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus