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Concept: Ergosterol


The soil amoebae Acanthamoeba causes Acanthamoeba keratitis, a severe sight-threatening infection of the eye and the almost universally fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. More effective treatments are required. Sterol biosynthesis has been effectively targeted in numerous fungi using azole compounds that inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase. Herein, using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS), we demonstrate that the major sterol of Acanthamoeba castellanii is ergosterol and identify novel putative precursors and intermediate sterols in its production. Unlike previously reported, we find no evidence of 7-dehydrostigmasterol or any other phytosterol in Acanthamoeba. Of five azoles tested, we demonstrate that tioconazole and voriconazole have the greatest overall inhibition for all isolates of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga tested. While miconazole and sulconazole have intermediate activity econazole is least effective. Through GCMS, we demonstrate that voriconazole inhibits 14α-demethylase as treatment inhibits the production of ergosterol, but results in the accumulation of the lanosterol substrate. These data provide the most complete description of sterol metabolism in Acanthamoeba, provide a putative framework for their further study and validate 14α-demethylase as the target for azoles in Acanthamoeba.

Concepts: Metabolism, Cytochrome P450, Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Steroid, Ergosterol, Sterol, Acanthamoeba


Invasive aspergillosis remains a major cause of death among the immunocompromised population and those receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. In light of increased azole resistance, variable outcomes with existing echinocandin mono and combination therapy, and persistent high mortality rates, new antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis are clearly needed.SCY-078 is the first in class triterpenoid antifungal, a novel class of glucan synthase inhibitors, with broadin vitroandin vivoactivity against a broad spectrum ofCandidaandAspergillusIn vitrotesting of clinical strains ofAspergillus fumigatusand non-fumigatusstrains showed potent fungistatic activity of SCY-078 (minimum effective concentration, MEC90= 0.125 μg/ml) as compared with amphotericin B (MIC90= 8 μg/ml) and voriconazole (MIC90= 2 μg/ml). Combination testing of SCY-078 with isavuconazole or voriconazole demonstrated synergistic activity against the majority of the azole-susceptible strains tested, and SCY-078 in combination with amphotericin B was synergistic against the azole-susceptible strains, as well as one known resistantcyp51Amutant. SCY-078 may be an important additional antifungal for first-line or salvage mono or combination treatment of invasive aspergillosis.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Opportunistic infection, Aspergillosis, Antifungals, Flucytosine, Candidiasis, Ergosterol, Echinocandin


Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC(50)/MIC(90), 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula species.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Biofilm, Catheter, Antifungals, Flucytosine, Candidiasis, Ergosterol, Antifungal drug


We aim in this study to provide levels of susceptibility of 162 bloodstream isolates of non-Candida albicans and non-C. tropicalis species from a sentinel program conducted in 11 hospitals in Brazil. Additionally, we compared the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee of Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) with Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) BMD method for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. The study included 103 C. parapsilosis, 38 C. glabrata, 8 C. orthopsilosis, and 7 C. krusei isolates, and single isolates of Pichia anomala, C. famata, C. lusitaniae, C. kefyr, C. guilliermondii, and C. metapsilosis. Of note, we observed cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole for two isolates being one C. parapsilosis and one C. glabrata. Good essential agreement (EA) was observed between the EUCAST and the CLSI results for C. parapsilosis and for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B, respectively: 98%, 99%, 98%, and 97%. Otherwise, for C. glabrata, the EA for fluconazole was 84.2% and for voriconazole 89.4%. Because data from Brazil are scarce, our results contribute to the consolidation of the database of candidemia agents and monitoring of trends in the profile of drug resistance.

Concepts: Laboratory, Amphotericin B, The Europeans, Antifungals, Candidiasis, Ergosterol, Triazole, World Health Organization essential medicines


Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

Concepts: Cell membrane, Ergosterol, Antifungal drug, Trichophyton rubrum, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Ketoconazole, Miconazole


We report the detection of high-titre anti-Histoplasma capsulatum IgM in the serum of three young adult males occupationally exposed to bat guano. Multidrug treatment with trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole was started, followed by ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, metamizole sodium, rifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin and lastly amphotericin B and ceftriaxone. Despite treatment the condition of one patient deteriorated, and he died 23 days after exposure. The other two patients recovered after receiving similar therapy with the addition of voriconazole. They are currently being treated with itraconazole for a 1-year period.

Concepts: Patient, Amphotericin B, Bat, Antifungals, Ergosterol, Histoplasmosis, Guano, World Health Organization essential medicines


Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that has been responsible for invasive infections associated with high morbidity and mortality. C. auris strains often demonstrate high fluconazole and amphotericin B minimum inhibitory concentration values, and some strains are resistant to all 3 major antifungal classes. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of 16 C. auris clinical strains, isolated from a wide geographical area, to 10 antifungal agents including APX001A, a novel agent that inhibits the fungal protein Gwt1 (GPI-anchored wall transfer protein 1). APX001A demonstrated significantly lower MIC50 and MIC90 values (0.004 μg/mL and 0.031 μg/mL, respectively) than all other agents tested.The efficacy of the prodrug APX001 was evaluated in an immunocompromised murine model of disseminated C. auris infection. Significant efficacy (80%-100% survival) was observed in all three APX001 treatment groups versus 50% survival for the anidulafungin treatment group. In addition, APX001 showed a significant log reduction in colony forming units (CFU) counts in kidney, lung and brain tissue (1.03 to 1.83) versus the vehicle control. Anidulafungin also showed a significant log reduction in CFU in kidney and lung (1.5 and 1.62, respectively), but did not impact brain CFU. These data support further clinical evaluation of this new antifungal agent.

Concepts: In vitro, Antifungals, Flucytosine, Candidiasis, Ergosterol, Antifungal drug, Fluconazole, Echinocandin


Abstract Objective: The conventional liposomal amphotericin B causes many unwanted side effects like blood disorder, nephrotoxicity, dose-dependent side effects, highly variable oral absorption and formulation-related instability. The objective of the present investigation was to develop cost-effective nanoemulsion as nanocarreir for enhanced and sustained delivery of amphotericin B into the skin. Methods and characterizations: Different oil-in-water nanoemulsions were developed by varying the composition of hydrophilic (Tween® 80) surfactants and co-surfactant by the spontaneous titration method. The developed formulation were characterized, optimized, evaluated and compared for the skin permeation with commercial formulation (fungisome 0.01% w/w). Optimized formulations loaded with amphotericin B were screened using varied concentrations of surfactants and co-surfactants as decided by the ternary phase diagram. Results and discussion: The maximum % transmittance obtained were 96.9 ± 1.0%, 95.9 ± 3.0% and 93.7 ± 1.2% for the optimized formulations F-I, F-III and F-VI, respectively. These optimized nanoemulsions were subjected to thermodynamic stability study to get the most stable nanoemulsions (F-I). The results of the particle size and zeta potential value were found to be 67.32 ± 0.8 nm and -3.7 ± 1.2 mV for the final optimized nanoemulsion F-I supporting transparency and stable nanoemulsion for better skin permeation. The steady state transdermal flux for the formulations was observed between 5.89 ± 2.06 and 18.02 ± 4.3 µg/cm(2)/h whereas the maximum enhancement ratio were found 1.85- and 3.0-fold higher than fungisome and drug solution, respectively, for F-I. The results of the skin deposition study suggests that 231.37 ± 3.6 µg/cm(2) drug deposited from optimized nanoemulsion F-I and 2.11-fold higher enhancement ratio as compared to fungisome. Optimized surfactants and co-surfactant combination-mediated transport of the drug through the skin was also tried and the results were shown to have facilitated drug permeation and skin perturbation (SEM). Conclusion: The combined results suggested that amphotericin B nanoemulsion could be a better option for localized topical drug delivery and have greater potential as an effective, efficient and safe approach.

Concepts: Thermodynamics, Topical, Amphotericin B, Gilead Sciences, Antifungals, Flucytosine, Ergosterol, Nephrotoxicity


The fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus is a rare but emerging pathogen that causes severe human infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. It is an important organism to identify due to its poor susceptibility to conventional antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Oculomycosis and cutaneous infections are the two most common manifestations of P. lilacinus infections. Voriconazole has been used successfully to treat P. lilacinus endophthalmitis, but reports of skin and soft tissue infections treated with voriconazole are limited to six prior publications. Our immunocompromised patient had a subcutaneous P. lilacinus infection successfully treated with 3 months of voriconazole therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Antifungals, Ergosterol, Paecilomyces lilacinus


Fungal infections create a significant risk to pediatric lung transplant recipients. However, no international consensus guidelines exist for fungal infection prevention strategies. It was the aim to describe the current strategies of antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric lung transplant centers. A self-administered, web-based survey on current practices to prevent fungal infection was circulated to centers within the IPLTC. Twenty-one (88%) IPLTC centers participated, predominantly from Europe and the US. More than 50% of respondents perform adult and pediatric lung transplant operations. Twenty-four percent use universal prophylaxis, 28% give prophylaxis to all patients but stratify the antifungal coverage based on pretransplant risk, and 48% target prophylaxis to only the children with CF or pretransplantation fungal colonization. Commonly, centers aim to target Aspergillus and Candida infection. Monotherapy with either voriconazole or inhaled amphotericin B is used in the majority of centers. Institutions utilize prophylactic therapy for variable time periods (40% 3-6 months; 30% ≥12 months). Alternative drugs were prescribed for lack of tolerance, toxicity, or positive surveillance culture. TDM (itraconazole/voriconazole) was used in 86% of centers. The survey revealed a wide range of antifungal prophylaxis strategies as current international practice in pediatric lung transplant recipients.

Concepts: Medicine, Infectious disease, Pleural effusion, Organ transplant, Antifungals, Flucytosine, Candidiasis, Ergosterol