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Concept: Epworth Sleepiness Scale


A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of sleep apnea. He snored loudly and had apnea during sleep. During the day, he was sleepy, and when lying down, he could quickly fall asleep. He had a score of 15 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, which ranges from 0 to 24, with a score of more than 10 suggestive of excessive daytime somnolence. On physical examination, there were no abnormalities other than obesity (100 kg [220 lb]; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31). Overnight polygraphy revealed a score . . .

Concepts: Mass, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Sleep medicine, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Somnolence, Kilogram


BACKGROUND: The recent SLEEMSA study that evaluated excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Caucasian patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) demonstrated that EDS was more frequent in patients (28%) than in healthy subjects (2%). However, the prevalence and determinants of EDS in other ethnic populations have not been reported to date. METHODS: We performed a single-hospital prospective study on patients with probable MSA. To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of EDS in Japanese MSA patients, we assessed the patients' degree of daytime sleepiness by using the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In addition, we investigated the effects of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and abnormal periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), which were measured by polysomnography, on the patients' ESS scores. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients with probable MSA (21 patients with cerebellar MSA and 4 patients with parkinsonian MSA) were included in this study. All patients underwent standard polysomnography. The mean ESS score was 6.2 +/- 0.9, and EDS was identified in 24% of the patients. SDB and abnormal PLMS were identified in 24 (96%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. The prevalences of EDS in patients with SDB and abnormal PLMS were 25% and 18%, respectively. No correlations were observed between ESS scores and the parameters of SDB or abnormal PLMS. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EDS in Japanese patients with MSA was similar to that in Caucasian MSA patients. SDB and abnormal PLMS were frequently observed in MSA patients, although the severities of these factors were not correlated with EDS. Further investigations using objective sleep tests need to be performed.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Parkinson's disease, Sleep apnea, Sleep medicine, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Sleep disorders


This study compared the predictive abilities of the STOP-Bang and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) for screening sleep clinic patients for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Forty-seven new adult patients without previous diagnoses of OSA or SDB were administered the STOP-Bang and ESS and were assigned to OSA or SDB risk groups based on their scores. STOP-Bang responses were scored with two Body Mass Index cut points of 35 and 30 kg/m(2) (SB35 and SB30). The tools' predictive abilities were determined by comparing patients' predicted OSA and SDB risks to their polysomnographic results. The SB30 correctly identified more patients with OSA and SDB than the ESS alone. The ESS had the highest specificity for OSA and SDB. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 36:84-94, 2013.

Concepts: Mass, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Body mass index, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Systemic symptoms are common in sarcoidosis and are associated with a decreased quality of life. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but may be a systemic symptom independently associated with sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sarcoidosis and EDS. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we compared sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score in 62 patients with sarcoidosis to 1,005 adults without sarcoidosis referred for polysomnography for suspicion of OSA. Linear regression models controlled for covariates. In a subgroup analysis of sarcoidosis patients, sleepiness scores and polysomnogram results were compared between those with normal and abnormal pulmonary function based on total lung capacity. RESULTS: EDS was more common in sarcoidosis than in controls, and sarcoidosis remained an independent predictor of increased sleepiness after controlling for covariates. Compared to controls referred for polysomnography, fewer sarcoidosis patients had clinically significant OSA. However, among sarcoidosis patients, OSA was more severe in those with abnormal lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcoidosis is independently associated with EDS. Sleepiness may contribute to the morbidity of sarcoidosis, and should be followed even after treating for potentially co-existing OSA or depression. Abnormal lung function in sarcoidosis may contribute to OSA, although the mechanisms for this are not known.

Concepts: Lung, Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep medicine, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders


Studies of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have shown impairment in neurocognitive function. This study investigated the neurocognitive function in children with OSAS before and after positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Twenty-one participants with suspected/documented OSAS were recruited, completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ), and/or the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Participants were administered sections of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning Scales, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-2nd Edition to assess neurocognitive function. The ESS and the CSHQ indicate that many participants had excessive daytime sleepiness and increased sleep-disordered breathing. Participants before therapy reflected neurocognitive deficiencies in all areas. Of the original 21 children, 4 completed the full PAP treatment and were reevaluated, demonstrating improvements in memory and motor speed. Children with OSAS reported sleep-disordered breathing, increased daytime sleepiness, and deficiencies in neurocognitive measures. Correcting these sleep impairments appeared to reduce global neurocognitive deficits while improving memory and processing speed.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Sleep disorders


A 66-year-old man with hypertension presented with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score 14/24), dyspnea upon exertion, and episodes of noninjurious dream-enacting behavior. He reported tongue biting when sleeping in the right lateral decubitus position. Medications included atenolol 12.5 mg, lovastatin 20 mg, doxazosin 2 mg, amlodipine 5 mg, isosorbide mononitrate 60 mg, and aspirin 81 mg. He denied headaches, visual changes, dysarthria, dysphagia, or localized weakness. He denied use of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs.

Concepts: Hypertension, Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Sleep apnea, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Somnolence, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Isosorbide mononitrate


BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common condition worldwide that has many negative effects on people who were afflicted with it, especially on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a commonly used method for evaluating EDS in English-speaking countries. This paper reported the prevalence of subjective EDS in China as assessed by the Mandarin version of the ESS; tested the scale’s response rate, reliability and validity; and investigated the relationship between ESS scores and HRQOL. METHODS: A population-based sample of 3600 residents was selected randomly in five cities in China. The demographic information was collected, subjective EDS was assessed by the Mandarin version of the ESS (ESS scores >10), and HRQOL was evaluated by the Mandarin version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). RESULTS: The Mandarin version of ESS had very few missing responses, and the average response rate of its eight items was 97.92 %. The split-half reliability coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were 0.81 and 0.80, respectively. One factor was identified by factor analysis with an eigenvalue of 2.78. The ESS scores showed positive skewness in the selected sample, with a median (Q1, Q3) of 6 (3, 0). 644 (22.16 %) respondents reported subjective EDS, and all of the scores of the eight dimensions of the SF-36 were negatively correlated with ESS scores. CONCLUSIONS: The Mandarin version of ESS is an acceptable, reliable, and valid tool for measuring EDS. In addition, subjective EDS is common in China, based on the ESS results, and impairs HRQOL.

Concepts: Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Reliability, Skewness, Cronbach's alpha, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Internal consistency


OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disorders have been reported to affect more than half of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the association between sleep and ADHD is poorly understood. The aims of our study were to investigate sleep-related variables in adults with ADHD and to assess if any differences exist between ADHD of the predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes. METHODS: We used the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the fatigue severity scale (FSS) to collect data on daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and fatigue in 126 subjects (45 ADHD-I and 81 ADHD-C subjects). RESULTS: Approximately 85% of subjects reported excessive daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality. The most common sleep concerns were initial insomnia, interrupted sleep, and feeling too hot. When examining ADHD subtype differences, ADHD-I subtypes reported poorer sleep quality and more fatigue than ADHD-C subtypes. Partial correlation analyses revealed that interrelationships between sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue differ between ADHD subtypes; in ADHD-I subtypes fatigue was associated with sleep quality, while in the ADHD-C subtypes fatigue was associated with both sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. There also appears to be a subtype×gender interaction that affects the perception of fatigue, as subjective fatigue was markedly higher in ADHD-I women than in ADHD-C women. CONCLUSION: Altogether our data indicate that the interplay of variables associated with daytime function and sleep varies between ADHD subtypes. This finding may have considerable relevance in the management and pathophysiologic understanding of ADHD, and thus lead to tailored treatments for ADHD subtypes.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD predominantly inattentive, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Sleep disorders


A new palatal procedure for snoring/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is described. The procedure was named as barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP). The technique is described step by step. The new surgical technique was carried out in ten adult OSA patients with mean age of 53.4 ± 12.4 years (average 30-70) with confirmed retropalatal obstruction. In this pilot study; we assessed the feasibility by calculating the number of cases that failed to be operated and converted to other palatal technique during the same surgical setting, safety was assessed by evaluating both intra-operative and post-operative complications, teachability measured by the learning curve of our team members (the time of surgical procedure). In this study, the technique is proved to be feasible in all cases. There were no significant intra-operative or post-operative complications. Objective clinical improvement was confirmed by polysomnography 6 months post-operative with significant decrease in mean AHI from 43.65 ± 26.83 to 13.57 ± 15.41 (P = 0.007), daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale from 11.6 ± 4.86 to 4.3 ± 2 (P < 0.01), ODI from 44.7 ± 27.3 to 12.9 ± 16.3 (P = 0.004). Operative time decreased over the course of the study with an initial steep ascent in technical skill acquisition followed by more gradual improvement, and a steady decrease in operative time to as short as 20 min. Our preliminary results suggest that BRP technique is feasible, safe and effective in management of OSA patients. Moreover, it is easy to learn even for not experienced surgeons, less time consuming and with no significant complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Sleep, Physician, Learning, Sleep apnea, Surgeon, Epworth Sleepiness Scale


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age  = 19.00 years) completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51%) reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.

Concepts: Psychology, Sleep, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Excessive daytime sleepiness, Textile, Student, Siesta, Nap