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Concept: Epistaxis


This study aims to provide guidance regarding patient selection and timing of intervention with sphenopalatine artery (SPA) ligation by defining ‘severe epistaxis’. An analysis of all patients undergoing SPA ligation (January 2002-2010) was performed. SPA ligation was deemed necessary if at least one of the four identified criteria was fulfilled. The same analysis was also performed on all patients admitted with epistaxis who did not undergo SPA ligation over a 6-month period. All 27 patients who underwent SPA ligation met at least one of the criteria selected. Uncontrolled epistaxis (21/27) was fulfilled most often. In comparison, only 4/71 patients admitted with epistaxis who did not undergo SPA ligation fulfilled any single criterion. All criteria were satisfied in a significantly higher number of cases in the SPA group (p < 0.001) The criteria studied proved helpful in identifying patients admitted to hospital with epistaxis who had failed conservative measures.

Concepts: Sphenopalatine foramen, Natural selection, Patient, Kiesselbach's plexus, Epistaxis, Hospital, Sphenopalatine artery, Selection


Introduction: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare multisystem vascular disorder characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectases and visceral arteriovenous malformations predisposing to shunting and hemorrhage. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HHT and therefore angiogenesis inhibitors appear to be the most promising agents. A literature search was performed to identify all articles reporting bevacizumab , a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We focused on the HHT pathogenesis, mechanism of action of the drug, its impact on the HHT symptoms and safety profile. Areas covered: Systemic intravenous administration of bevacizumab improves the frequency and intensity of epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding episodes and liver arteriovenous malformations consequences. The safety profile of the systematic administration of the drug appears to be excellent with hypertension as the unique adverse effect reported so far. Its intranasal administration significantly decreases frequency and severity of nosebleeds and blood transfusion requirements. Expert opinion: In the absence of randomized controlled trials in HHT, criteria of selecting patients and formal recommendations for treatment are lacking. For life-threatening epistaxis requiring blood transfusion, topical treatment with bevacizumab may be beneficial. Systemic treatment with bevacizumab is promising in symptomatic patients with organ involvement and life-threatening conditions.

Concepts: Epistaxis, Angiogenesis, Bevacizumab, Monoclonal antibodies, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Blood, Immune system, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia


Abstract Conclusion: We consider sphenopalatine artery ligation to be a safe and effective treatment of posterior epistaxis as the long-term need for revision surgery and the complication rates are low. Surgery should be considered earlier in the treatment of posterior epistaxis. Objectives: Posterior epistaxis is common and surgical endoscopic ligation of the sphenopalatine arteries is indicated in severe cases. Knowledge about long-term effects and complications is sparse. Methods: Within 2001-2006, 78 patients underwent endonasal endoscopic-guided surgery for posterior epistaxis in one of the eight ENT clinics in Denmark treating these patients. In 2011, 45 patients were still alive and eligible for the study. Patients were contacted by telephone and invited to complete an interview questionnaire on late adverse affects and recurrence. Results: In all, 42 of 45 patients participated in the mean follow-up. The mean follow-up was 6.7 years: 90% of patients (n = 38) obtained an effect of the treatment during follow-up; 78% (n = 33) had no recurrent epistaxis, 12% (n = 5) had recurrent epistaxis but only needed non-surgical specialized treatment; 10% (n = 4) required revision surgery due to recurrent epistaxis within the 6.7 mean years of follow-up; and 26% of the patients had minor postoperative complications, permanent nasal crusting being most persistent and frequent.

Concepts: Hospital, Affect, Kiesselbach's plexus, Effectiveness, Epistaxis, Blood, Sphenopalatine artery, Effect


BACKGROUND: The advent of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (ESPAL) for the control of posterior epistaxis provides an effective, low-morbidity treatment option. In the current practice algorithm, ESPAL is pursued after failure of posterior packing. Given the morbidity and limited effectiveness of posterior packing, we sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of first-line ESPAL compared to the current practice model. METHODS: A standard decision analysis model was constructed comparing first-line ESPAL and current practice algorithms. A literature search was performed to determine event probabilities and published Medicare data largely provided cost parameters. The primary outcomes were cost of treatment and resolution of epistaxis. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed for key parameters. RESULTS: Costs for the first-line ESPAL arm and the current practice arm were $6450 and $8246, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed for key variables including duration of packing. The baseline difference of $1796 in favor of the first-line ESPAL arm was increased to $6263 when the duration of nasal packing was increased from 3 to 5 days. Current practice was favored (cost savings of $437 per patient) if posterior packing duration was decreased from 3 to 2 days. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ESPAL is cost-saving as first-line therapy for posterior epistaxis. Given the improved effectiveness and patient comfort of ESPAL compared to posterior packing, ESPAL should be offered as an initial treatment option for medically stable patients with posterior epistaxis.

Concepts: Info-gap decision theory, Decision theory, Kiesselbach's plexus, Epistaxis, Decision analysis, Costs, Sphenopalatine artery, Sensitivity analysis


A 58-year-old woman presented with intermittent passage of bright red blood from the rectum, progressive fatigue, and dyspnea. Examination revealed telangiectasias on the labial mucosa and nail folds. Her mother was reported to have frequent epistaxis and similar skin lesions.

Concepts: Telangiectasia, 1996 albums, Epistaxis, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Blood


Pheochromocytoma rupture is rare, and emergent adrenalectomy is associated with a high mortality. We herein report a patient with pheochromocytoma rupture who was stabilized by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and subsequently underwent elective surgery. A 45-year-old man presented with the sudden onset of left lateral abdominal pain, headache, chest discomfort, high blood pressure, and adrenal hemorrhaging on enhanced abdominal computed tomography. TAE was performed under a provisional diagnosis of pheochromocytoma rupture. Following oral doxazosin, he underwent elective left adrenalectomy four and a half months after TAE. Stabilizing the hemodynamic status by TAE before adrenalectomy is a viable option for treating pheochromocytoma rupture.

Concepts: Orthostatic hypotension, Epistaxis, Blood pressure, Hemodynamics, Radiology, Blood, Surgery, Hypertension


Epistaxis is an active nose bleeding with a population occurrence of approximately 60%. Although epistaxis is a common clinical complaint, the majority of the cases are benign and caused by local induced factors (e.g., trauma and local inflammation). Nevertheless, it is also recognised that epistaxis can be induced after some drugs intake.

Concepts: Drug addiction, Drugs, Epistaxis, Drug, Blood, Pharmacology


The complex arterial system makes pancreatic interventions technically challenging for surgeons, and interventional radiologists. The arterial variants may alter tumor resecability, and cause complications in arterial embolization. International data on pancreatic blood supply are variable; therefore, we aimed to determine the frequency of variants of pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcades.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Epistaxis, Heart, Surgery, Radiology, Artery, Blood, Interventional radiology


Our objective was to describe epistaxis onset and severity in pediatric hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients and study the cumulative incidence of epistaxis by age of onset within each genetic subtype.

Concepts: Epistaxis, Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia


Embolization is a treatment option for intractable epistaxis, however concerns regarding tissue necrosis, stroke and blindness persist in the literature.

Concepts: Epistaxis, Necrosis, Ischemia, Myocardial infarction, Infarction