Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Episode


Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text. Based on subjective reports, it appears that individuals re-read when they feel that clarification of the text is needed, suggesting that a key concept of the text is missed during a mind wandering episode. Future work aimed at understanding how individuals refocus their attention following mind wandering in different settings should provide additional insights into the fluctuation of attentional focus and the immediate impact of a mind wandering episode. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Psychology, Attention, Attention economy, Perception, Futures contract, Episode


Previous experiments have demonstrated that by 4 years of age children can use information from a past episode to solve a problem for the very next future episode. However, it remained unclear whether 4-year-olds can similarly use such information to solve a problem for a more removed future episode that is not of immediate concern. In the current study we introduced 4-year-olds to problems in one room before taking them to another room and distracting them for 15 min. The children were then offered a choice of items to place into a bucket that was to be taken back to the first room when a 5-min sand-timer had completed a cycle. Across two conceptually distinct domains, the children placed the item that could solve the deferred future problem above chance level. This result demonstrates that by 48 months many children can recall a problem from the past and act in the present to solve that problem for a deferred future episode. We discuss implications for theories about the nature of episodic foresight.

Concepts: Present, Time, Future, Demonstration, Problem solving, Past, Problem, Episode


The study aimed to determine the current trends in urolithiasis-related admissions and associated interventions in England between 2006/2007 and 2013/2014 utilizing Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) online data.

Concepts: Statistics, Data, The Current, Episode


This study examines the portrayal and affective framing of workplace bullying behaviors on the popular American television show The Office Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were conducted on 54 episodes spanning the show’s nine seasons. Results revealed 331 instances of workplace bullying, for an average of 6.13 bullying behaviors per episode. Workplace bullying behavior on The Office was grouped into five categories: sexual jokes, public humiliation, practical jokes, belittlement, and misuse of authority. In general, instances of workplace bully were scripted as humorous and lacking significant consequences, which could further contribute to social discourses that perpetuate the problem of bullying in real-life workplaces.

Concepts: Psychology, Sociology, Abuse, Psychological abuse, Workplace bullying, Bullying, Episode, Dunder Mifflin


A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Weight loss, The Real World, Episode, Television, Reality television, Television program


BACKGROUND: Oral corticosteroids (OCSs) are recommended for severe wheezing episodes in children. However, limited evidence supports this intervention in preschool children with outpatient wheezing illnesses. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether OCSs reduce symptom scores during acute lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) in preschool children with recurrent wheeze. METHODS: We performed post hoc and replication analyses in 2 outpatient cohorts of children aged 1 to 5 years with episodic wheezing participating in clinical trials. We compared symptom scores during LRTIs that were or were not treated with OCSs, adjusting for differences in disease and episode severity covariates. We stratified episodes by severity by using a propensity model. The primary outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) of total symptom scores among the more severe episodes. RESULTS: Two hundred fifteen participants from the Acute Intervention Management Strategies trial experienced 798 acute LRTIs, 112 of which were defined as severe based on propensity scores. The AUCs of total symptom scores did not differ between the episodes that were (n = 70) and were not (n = 42) treated with OCSs (P = .46) nor was there an OCS treatment effect on individual symptom scores. Similar analyses of the Maintenance Versus Intermittent Inhaled Corticosteroids in Wheezing Toddlers trial, involving 278 participants with 133 severe LRTIs, confirmed the above findings (P = .46 for AUC of total symptoms score comparison). CONCLUSION: In 2 separate cohorts of preschool children with episodic wheezing, OCS treatment during clinically significant LRTIs did not reduce symptom severity during acute LRTIs, despite asthma controller medication use during most episodes. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Asthma, Randomized controlled trial, Respiratory system, Upper respiratory tract, Lower respiratory tract, Episode


A late preterm infant presenting with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of poor systolic function seen on echocardiogram. The hospitalization was complicated by multiple breakthrough episodes of SVT requiring ice placed on the face during each repeat episode. The infant was later diagnosed as having cold panniculitis secondary to the application of ice to the face on multiple occasions. In children who are hemodynamically stable during SVT episodes, ice is used as first-line treatment. It is important to be aware of how often ice is being applied to the face and the duration of time to limit complications such as cold panniculitis.

Concepts: Childbirth, Function, Cardiology, Supraventricular tachycardia, Face, Tachycardia, Episode, Panniculitis


To retrospectively compare the benefits (episode cessation) and risks of IV methylprednisolone (IV-MP) vs abstention during prolonged Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) episodes.

Concepts: Episode


Our study examined momentary mood and emotional instability pre- and post-loss of control (LOC) eating on non-LOC and LOC eating days, using randomly timed assessments. Community and university participants (n = 45) who endorsed LOC eating at least once per week completed 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment. All negative moods and emotional instability were elevated on LOC eating days, but trajectories between days did not differ. Guilt exhibited an increasing trajectory prior to a LOC eating episode, but remained elevated after LOC eating episodes. Additional analyses revealed that size of the LOC eating episode did not change these results dramatically.

Concepts: Control theory, Logic, Empathy, Emotion, Feeling, Mood, Episode, Grammatical mood


Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Clinical trial, The Age, Otitis media, Episode