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Concept: Enzyme replacement therapy

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BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency leading to renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular disease and premature death. Treatment with alpha-galactosidase A (enzyme replacement therapy, ERT) stabilises disease in some patients, but long term effectiveness is unclear. METHODS: Renal, cardiac, and cerebral outcomes were prospectively studied in males and females with Fabry disease treated with ERT. Additionally, the occurrence of major cardiac events, stroke, end-stage renal disease and death was compared to a natural history (NH) cohort meeting treatment criteria. RESULTS: Of 75 patients on ERT (median treatment duration 5.2 years, range 0.05-11.0), prospective follow-up was available for 57 adult patients (30 males) and 6 adolescents. Renal function declined in males (-3.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, SE 0.2; p < 0.001) despite ERT, but followed the normal course in females (-0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year, SE 0.3; p = 0.001). Cardiac mass increased during ERT in males (+ 1.2 gram/m2.7, SE 0.3; p < 0.001), but remained stable in females (-0.3 gram/m2.7 per year, SE 0.4; p = 0.52). ERT did not prevent the occurrence of cerebral white matter lesions. Comparison of ERT treated to untreated patients revealed that the odds to develop a first complication increased with age (OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.0-1.1) per year, p = 0.012). For development of a first or second complication the odds declined with longer treatment duration (OR 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68-0.96) per year of ERT, p = 0.015;OR 0.52 (0.31-0.88), p = 0.014 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Long term ERT does not prevent disease progression, but the risk of developing a first or second complication declines with increasing treatment duration. ERT in advanced Fabry disease seems of doubtful benefit.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Death, Lysosomal storage disease, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease

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Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by GLA mutations, resulting in α-galactosidase (α-Gal) deficiency and accumulation of lysosomal substrates. Migalastat, an oral pharmacological chaperone being developed as an alternative to intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), stabilises specific mutant (amenable) forms of α-Gal to facilitate normal lysosomal trafficking.

Concepts: Medicine, Enzyme, Lysosomal storage disease, Therapy, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease

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The benefits of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are inadequately defined. We have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of PERT to determine the efficacy of PERT in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) from CP.

Concepts: Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Pancreas, Therapy, Enzyme replacement therapy, Chronic pancreatitis, Steatorrhea, Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

6

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the impairment of α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement therapy is available to treat patients, who often experience delayed diagnosis. A newborn screening for Fabry disease was performed to study the prevalence of the pathology and to evaluate the possibility to implement the test in systematic screenings. We collected 14,600 dried blood spot samples (7575 males and 7025 females) and carried out a diagnostic study by fluorometric measurement of α-galactosidase A enzymatic activity and GLA gene sequencing. We detected one patient with a mutation in GLA associated with classical Fabry Disease (M290I), ten subjects carrying genetic variants of uncertain diagnosis (S126G, R118C, A143T), and a girl with the non-characterized variant F18Y, which was not previously described. Additional 25 samples presented nucleotide substitutions described as polymorphisms (D313Y, rs2071225, and rs2071397). The estimated prevalence for Fabry disease in north-western Spanish males is of 0.013%.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Cell, Cancer, Lysosomal storage disease, Therapy, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease

5

Fabry disease results from deficient α-galactosidase A activity and globotriaosylceramide accumulation causing renal insufficiency, strokes, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and early demise. We assessed the 10-year outcome of recombinant α-galactosidase A therapy.

Concepts: Renal failure, Kidney, Cardiomyopathy, Therapy, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease

5

BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) compared to standard medical care was evaluated in the Dutch cohort of patients with Fabry disease. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a life-time state-transition model. Transition probabilities, effectiveness data and costs were derived from retrospective data and prospective follow-up of the Dutch study cohort consisting of males and females aged 5–78 years. Intervention with ERT (either agalsidase alfa or agalsidase beta) was compared to the standard medical care. The main outcome measures were years without end organ damage (renal, cardiac en cerebrovascular complications), quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. RESULTS: Over a 70 year lifetime, an untreated Fabry patient will generate 55.0 years free of end-organ damage (53.5 years in males, 56.9 years in females) and 48.6 QALYs (47.8 in males, 49.7 in females). Starting ERT in a symptomatic patient increases the number of years free of end-organ damage by 1.5 year (1.6 in males, 1.3 in females), while the number of QALYs gained increases by a similar amount (1.7 in males, 1.4 in females). The costs of ERT starting in the symptomatic stage are between [euro sign]9 - [euro sign]10 million ([lira sign] 7.9 - [lira sign] 8.8 million, $13.0- $14.5 million) during a patient’s lifetime. Consequently, the extra costs per additional year free of end-organ damage and the extra costs per additional QALY range from [euro sign]5.5 - [euro sign]7.5 million ([lira sign] 4.8 – [lira sign] 6.6 million, $ 8.0 – $ 10.8 million), undiscounted. CONCLUSIONS: In symptomatic patients with Fabry disease, ERT has limited effect on quality of life and progression to end organ damage. The pharmaco-economic evaluation shows that this modest effectiveness drives the costs per QALY and the costs per year free of end-organ damage to millions of euros. Differentiation of patients who may benefit from ERT should be improved to enhance cost-effectiveness.

Concepts: Health economics, Diseases and disorders, Costs, Therapy, Cost-utility analysis, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease, End organ damage

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Fabry disease is characterised by the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and related glycosphingolipids in vascular endothelial cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) clears this accumulation. We analysed plasma proteome profiles before and after ERT to characterise its molecular pathology.

Concepts: Inflammation, Protein, Pathology, Therapy, Endothelium, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease, The Progressive

2

Fabry disease (FD), caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase-A, is a progressive multisystem disease. The disease is X-linked with generally more severe manifestations in males, but can impact on quality of life (QoL) of both male and female patients. The purpose of this literature review is to analyse the currently available data concerning QoL measurement, specifically which questionnaires have been used to measure QoL, how patients with FD score compared to the general population, and the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on QoL. Fifty-four articles were relevant for this literature review. Patients with FD had a lower QoL compared to the general population. No definite conclusions could be drawn from the studies on the effect of ERT on QoL; natural history data is scarce, changes observed were limited and the cohorts were of small size. We propose that a FD specific questionnaire be made to accurately assess QoL in patients with FD.

Concepts: Male, Female, Quality, Therapy, Sex, Nature, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease

2

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by mutations in the gene (GLA) that encodes the lysosomal hydrolase α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), and is characterized by pathological accumulation of the substrate, globotriaosylceramide (GL-3). Regular infusion of recombinant human α-Gal A (rhα-Gal A), termed enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), is the primary treatment for Fabry disease. However, rhα-Gal A has low physical stability, a short circulating half-life, and variable uptake into different disease-relevant tissues. We hypothesized that coadministration of the orally available, small molecule pharmacological chaperone AT1001 (GR181413A, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, migalastat hydrochloride) may improve the pharmacological properties of rhα-Gal A via binding and stabilization. AT1001 prevented rhα-Gal A denaturation and activity loss in vitro at neutral pH and 37 °C. Coincubation of Fabry fibroblasts with rhα-Gal A and AT1001 resulted in up to fourfold higher cellular α-Gal A and ~30% greater GL-3 reduction compared to rhα-Gal A alone. Furthermore, coadministration of AT1001 to rats increased the circulating half-life of rhα-Gal A by >2.5-fold, and in GLA knockout mice resulted in up to fivefold higher α-Gal A levels and fourfold greater GL-3 reduction than rhα-Gal A alone. Collectively, these data highlight the potentially beneficial effects of AT1001 on rhα-Gal A, thus warranting clinical investigation.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Enzyme, Lysosomal storage disease, Therapy, PH, Enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry disease