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Concept: Enterobacter aerogenes


Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes was evaluated on household surfaces using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30 and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with 16 cm(2) contact area) were dropped on the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Post transfer surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log % transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food and surface type all had a highly significant effect (P<0.000001) on log % transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (TSB or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2-97%) relative to other foods, while fewer bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1-62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02-94%) and bread with butter (∼0.02-82%) were similar, and transfer rates under a given set of condition were more variable compared with watermelon and gummy candy.

Concepts: Bacteria, Food, Bread, Foodborne illness, Food safety, Enterobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Gummi bear


Ethanol organosolv pretreated rice straw was used to produce biohydrogen using Enterobacter aerogenes. The effect of temperature (120-180°C), residence time (30-90min), and ethanol concentration (45-75%v/v) on the hydrogen yield, residual biomass, and lignin recovery was investigated using RSM. In contrast to the residual solid and lignin recovery, no considerable trend could be observed for the changes in the hydrogen yield at different treatment severities. The maximum hydrogen yield of 19.73mlg(-1) straw was obtained at the ethanol concentration of 45%v/v and 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, the potential amount of biohydrogen was estimated in the top ten rice producing nations using the experimental results. Approximately 355.8kt of hydrogen and 11.3Mt of lignin could globally be produced. Based on a Monte Carlo analysis, the production of biohydrogen from rice straw has the lowest risk in China and the highest in Japan.

Concepts: Monte Carlo, Numerical analysis, Biofuel, Monaco, French Riviera, Enterobacter, Straw, Enterobacter aerogenes


We report a recycling bioresource involving harvesting of Microcystis aeruginosa using the bioflocculant (MBF-32) produced by Enterobacter aerogenes followed by the recovery of the harvested M. aeruginosa as the main substrate for the sustainable production of MBF-32 and biohydrogen. The experimental results indicate that the efficiency of bioflocculation exceeded 90% under optimal conditions. The harvested M. aeruginosa was further recycled as the main substrate for the supply of necessary elements. The highest yield (3.6±0.1g/L) of MBF-32 could be obtained from 20g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa with an additional 20g/L of glucose as the extra carbon source. The highest yield of biohydrogen was 35mL of H2/g (dw) algal biomass, obtained from 20g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa with an additional 10g/L of glycerol. Transcriptome analyses indicated that MBF-32 was mainly composed of polysaccharide and tyrosine/tryptophan proteins. Furthermore, NADH synthase and polysaccharide export-related genes were found to be up-regulated.

Concepts: Protein, Enzyme, Glucose, Carbon, Recycling, Biofuel, Enterobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes


A process of isobutanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates in Enterobacter aerogenes was developed here with a pervaporation-integrated procedure. Isobutanol pathway was overexpressed in a mutant strain with eliminated byproduct-forming enzymes (LdhA, BudA, and PflB). A glucose-and-xylose-coconsuming ptsG mutant was constructed for effective utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Toxic effects of isobutanol were alleviated by in situ recovery via a pervaporation procedure. Compared to single-batch fermentation, cell growth and isobutanol titer were improved by 60% and 100%, respectively, in the pervaporation-integrated fermentation process. A lab-made cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane membrane was cast on polyvinylidene fluoride and used in the pervaporation process. The membrane-penetrating condensate contained 55-226 g m-2 h-1isobutanol with 6-25 g L-1ethanol after separation. This study offers improved fermentative production of isobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass with a pervaporation procedure.

Concepts: Ethanol, Fermentation, Enterobacter, Bagasse, Enterobacter aerogenes


We report here the draft genome sequences of fourblaKPC-containing bacteria identified asKlebsiella aerogenes,Citrobacter freundii, andCitrobacter koseriAdditionally, we report the draft genome sequence of aK. aerogenesstrain that did not contain ablaKPCgene but was isolated from the patient who had theblaKPC-2-containingK. aerogenesstrain.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Human Genome Project, Virus, Genome, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes


Maillard reactions products (MRPs) are a major colorant of distillery effluent. It is major source of environmental pollution due to its complex structure and recalcitrant nature. This study has revealed that sucrose glutamic acid-Maillard reaction products (SGA-MRPs) showed many absorption peaks between 200 and 450 nm. The absorption maximum peak was noted at 250 nm in spectrophotometric detection. This indicated the formation of variable molecular weight Maillard products during the SGA-MRPs formation at high temperature. The identified aerobic bacterial consortium consisting Klebsiella pneumoniae (KU726953), Salmonella enterica (KU726954), Enterobacter aerogenes (KU726955), Enterobacter cloaceae (KU726957) showed optimum production of MnP and laccase at 120 and 144 h of growth, respectively. The potential bacterial consortium showed decolourisation of Maillard product up to 70% in presence of glucose (1%), peptone (0.1%) at optimum pH (8.1), temperature (37 °C) and shaking speed (180 rpm) within 192 h of incubation. The reduction of colour of Maillard product correlated with shifting of absorption peaks in UV-Vis spectrophotometry analysis. Further, the changing of functional group in FT-IR data showed appearance of new peaks and GC-MS analysis of degraded sample revealed the depolymerisation of complex MRPs. The toxicity evaluation using seed of Phaseolus mungo L. showed reduction of toxicity of MRPs after bacterial treatment. Hence, this study concluded that developed bacterial consortium have capability for decolourisation of MRPs due to high content of MnP and laccase.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Microbiology, Chemical reaction, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella enterica, Enterobacteria, Enterobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes


Several genetic regulators belonging to AraC family are involved in the emergence of MDR isolates of E. aerogenes due to alterations in membrane permeability. Compared with the genetic regulator Mar, RamA may be more relevant towards the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Bacteria, Antibiotic resistance, Enterobacter, Enterobacter aerogenes, Rama


In this study, a novel isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes isolated from contaminated soils with hydrocarbons had extracellular phytate-degrading activity. Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed by16S rRNA gene products (amplified size 211bp) for genotypic detection. The phytase activity was reached to maximum activity when this isolate was cultivated under the optimal conditions which consisted of using minimal salt medium containing 1%(w/v) rice bran as a sole source for carbon and 2% (w/v) yeast extract at pH 5.5 and temperature of 50°C for 48 h. The phytase had purified to homogeneity by 50% ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 75.7 fold of purification and a yield of 30.35%. The purified phytase is a single peptide with approximate molecular mass of 42 kDa as assessed by SDS-PAGE. The highest degradative ability by Enterobacter aerogenes of black oil, white oil and used engine oil had observed after 72 h of incubation. Rapid degradation of black oil and used engine oil had also observed while slow degradation of white oilat all time of incubation. The purified phytase inhibited biofilm formation ability in a dose-dependent manner for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to phytase for hour. The hydrolyzing effect of phytase released by Enterobacter aerogenes for complex salts of phosphorus that are insoluble in the soil led to increase of phosphorus concentrations and enhanced the ability of Enterobacter aerogenes to degrade a specific hydrocarbon in contaminated soil so that the phytase has a promising application in bioremediation of contaminated soils with hydrocarbons.

Concepts: Archaea, Bacteria, Molecular biology, Petroleum, Soil, Hydrocarbon, Biofilm, Enterobacter aerogenes


Direct and economic transformation of biodiesel derived crude glycerol is gaining more significance. During screening of bacterial cultures Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes were able to convert crude bio-glycerol to 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), as major compounds, ethanol and acetoin as minor compounds, with a conversion of 69% and 79% respectively. Process optimization could achieve maximum conversion at pH 7.0, 37 °C, 30-40 g/L glycerol and 1.5 g of inoculum until 120 h. Mixed cultures led to complete glycerol conversion with optimal yield and productivity. An innovative approach of using crude glycerol for sustained growth and tolerance of bacteria as source of carbon and energy makes this study more significant. In addition to this, a mixed culture concept introduced here is expected to make impact in process economics for industrial scale synthesis for direct transformation of glycerol into C3 and specifically, C4 diols.

Concepts: Economics, Culture, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacteria, Glycerol, Enterobacter, Biodiesel, Enterobacter aerogenes


Enterobacter aerogenes have been reported as important opportunistic and multi-resistant bacterial pathogens for humans during the last three decades in hospital wards. The emergence of drug-resistant E. aerogenes demands the need for developing new drugs. Peptidoglycan is an important component of the cell wall of bacteria and the peptidoglycan biochemical pathway is considered as the best source of antibacterial targets. Within this pathway, four Mur ligases MurC, MurD, MurE, and MurF are responsible for the successive additions of L-alanine and suitable targets for developing novel antibacterial drugs. As an inference from this fact, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of above Mur ligases using best template structures available in PDB and analyzed its common binding features. Structural refinement and energy minimization of the predicted Mur ligases models is also being done using molecular dynamics studies. The models of Mur ligases were further investigated for in silico docking studies using bioactive plant compounds from the literature. Interestingly, these results indicate that four plant compounds Isojuripidine, Atroviolacegenin, Porrigenin B, and Nummularogenin showing better docking results in terms of binding energy and number of hydrogen bonds. All these four compounds are spirostan-based compounds with differences in side chains and the amino acid such as ASN, LYS, THR, HIS, ARG (polar) and PHE, GLY, VAL, ALA, MET (non-polar) playing active role in binding site of all four Mur ligases. Overall, in the predicted model, the four plant compounds with its binding features could pave way to design novel multi-targeted antibacterial plant-based bioactive compounds specific to Mur ligases for the treatment of Enterobacter infections.

Concepts: Protein, Bacteria, Amino acid, Proteinogenic amino acid, Essential amino acid, Cell wall, Biochemistry, Enterobacter aerogenes