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Concept: Enteral feeding

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We evaluated factors associated with long-term dependence on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, The Tubes, Enteral feeding

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Enteral feeding through gastrojejunal (GJ) tubes is an established method of nutrition for patients with feeding difficulty who do not tolerate intragastric feedings. Literature about the long-term outcome, safety and complications of different GJ tubes and placement methods remains lacking in children. OBJECTIVES:: Our study aims to provide information about indications, techniques and long-term outcome of GJ tube use in children. METHODS:: Retrospective chart review for GJ tube placement procedures at our center over 10 years (1999 to 2009). Data collected included demographics, placement indications, underlying diagnosis, tube type, placement methods, complications, tube survival and patient outcome. RESULTS:: 33 patients utilizing GJ tubes were identified, with a total of 160 successful procedures documented (overall success rate of 97.6%). At initial placement, the mean age was 6 years (range 0.6-21.6), and mean weight was 19.4 kg (range 6.6-72.2). Patients had a mean of 4.9 tubes placed per patient (range 1-20) over a follow-up of 26.8 months (range 0.4-115.3). The most common indications for replacement included accidental dislodgement, tube obstruction, coiling back into the stomach and broken tube component. At the end of the study, 39% continued using GJ tubes, 30% were transitioned back to gastrostomy or oral feeds and 15% underwent a surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS:: Long term GJ tube use is possible and safe in children. Various feeding tubes and placement methods can be utilized by pediatric gastroenterologists to provide long term jejunal feeds in children.

Concepts: Feeding tube, Term, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is widely accepted as the preferred procedure to establish long-term enteral feeding. OBJECTIVE: To learn the long-term outcomes of the patients who have undergone PEG placement, we reviewed our experience with children who underwent this procedure in our institute. METHODS: A total of 83 pediatric patients (42 males and 41 females), who were aged from 3 months to 20 years, underwent PEG insertion in National Taiwan University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2011. The underlying diseases of the patients receiving PEG were neurological dysfunction (n = 67), metabolic disorders (n = 9), gastrointestinal disease (n = 2), and congenital heart disease (n = 1). This procedure was performed under intravenous sedation or under general anesthesia. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered for 1 day. Tube feeding began 24 hours after the PEG placement. The body weight of the patients was recorded 1 day before PEG placement and at least 6 months after PEG placement. RESULTS: The weight-for-age Z-score before and at 6 months after PEG placement were -1.5 ± 2.0 and -0.9 ± 2.1, respectively, which was statistically significant (paired t test, p = 0.006). The catch-up growth was recorded after PEG placement. Complications of PEG in our patients included cellulitis at the gastrostomy wound (n = 14), dislodgement of the tube (n = 17), and persistent gastrocutaneous fistula (n = 3). The PEG tube was removed permanently in seventeen patients because they resumed an adequate oral intake. During the follow-up period, 14 patients died of an underlying disease or infection. CONCLUSION: Our experience confirmed that PEG placement is a good long-term route for nutritional supply with no serious complications in children.

Concepts: Feeding tube, Anesthesia, Sedation, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Endoscopy, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enteral nutrition using feeding devices such as nasogastric (NG) tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective feeding method subject that may give rise to complications. We have studied the relationship between enteral nutrition feeding devices in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Departments and the development of pulmonary complications (bronchial aspiration and aspiration pneumonia). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All of the patients discharge between 2005 and 2009 from the Internal Medicine (IM) Departments of the public hospitals of the National Health System in Spain were analyzed. The data of patients with bronchial aspiration or aspiration pneumonia who also were carriers of NG tubes or PEG, were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). RESULTS: From a total of 2,767,259 discharges, 26,066 (0.92%) patients with nasogastric tube (NG tube) or percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) were identified. A total of 21.5% of patients with NG tube and 25.9% of patients with PEG had coding for a bronchopulmonary aspiration on their discharge report versus 1.2% of patients without an enteral feeding tube. In the multivariate analysis, the likelihood of suffering bronchoaspiration was 9 times greater in patients with SNG (OR: 9.1; 95% CI: 8.7-9.4) and 15 greater in subjects with PEG (OR: 15.2; 95% CI: 14.5-15.9) than in subjects without SNG or PEG. Mean stay (9.2 and 12.7 more days), diagnostic complexity and costs were much higher in patients with SNG or PEG compared to patients in hospital who did not require these devices. CONCLUSIONS: An association was found between SNG and PEG for enteral feeding and pulmonary complications. Mean stay, diagnostic complexity and cost per admission of these patients was higher in patients who did not require enteral nutrition.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Pneumonia, Physician, Feeding tube, Trigraph, Aspiration pneumonia, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with prophylactic placement of feeding tubes in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of treatment using multilevel models that account for patient-, physician-, and institution-level sources of variation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis using binary logistic regression and hierarchical linear models was run to evaluate independent predictors of prophylactic feeding tube placement. METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data were used. Head and neck cancer patients diagnosed with locoregionally advanced stage disease from 2000 to 2005 were included in this study (N = 8,306). RESULTS: Across all models, prophylactic gastrostomy tube placement was found to be more likely in patients who had cancer of the larynx or oropharynx compared with those with cancer of the nasopharynx or oral cavity; who had regional instead of local cancer; who did not receive surgery as a part of treatment, but did receive chemotherapy; and who were divorced, separated, or widowed. Additionally, although practice variation was observed to occur, its overall contribution in predicting prophylactic gastrostomy tube placement was minimal. CONCLUSIONS: As health care enters an era of patient-centered care, further investigation of the potential role of social support (or lack of social support) in influencing treatment decisions of head and neck cancer patients and providers is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 2013.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Cancer, Radiation therapy, Feeding tube, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer have an increased risk of malnutrition, and may require enteral feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube. The aim of this audit was to examine current enteral feeding practice, mortality, morbidity and 6-month outcome data of head and neck cancer patients receiving radical (chemo)radiotherapy at a regional cancer centre and to compare the results with a regional head and neck cancer gastrostomy audit. METHODS: A 2-year audit was conducted (2006-2008). Inclusion criteria were all adult patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, receiving radical radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment. The first-year data were collected retrospectively, and the second-year data were collected prospectively. Data were collected on all patients requiring enteral feeding with 6-month outcome data relating to route of nutrition. RESULTS: Approximately 14% (n = 32/223) of patients were admitted for nasogastric feeding as a result of inadequate oral alimentation. On admission, 94% were at risk of refeeding syndrome, taking a mean (SD) of 11 (4.9) days to reach full nutritional requirements. Mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 13 (5.1) days. No major complications from nasogastric tube insertion were found. The mean (SD) length of nasogastric feeding was 72 (20.1) days with 89.6% managing full nutritional requirements orally at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients requiring enteral feeding during treatment were fed via a nasogastric tube, rather than via a prophylactic gastrostomy tube. Compared with the regional gastrostomy audit results, our patients had a lower clinical risk/complication rate, with a greater proportion tolerating full oral intake at 6 months. Therefore, nasogastric feeding, rather than prophylactic gastrostomy tube feeding, could be a more appropriate method of enteral feeding in this patient group.

Concepts: Cancer, Nutrition, Obesity, Feeding tube, Squamous cell carcinoma, Head and neck cancer, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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BACKGROUND: Placement of gastrostomy tubes (g-tubes) in patients with hypopharyngeal cancers undergoing radiation and chemotherapy is generally empirically determined. We examined our experience to identify predictive factors for g-tube placement and length of dependence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with primary hypopharyngeal cancer treated with nonsurgical modalities at a tertiary care center between 2002 and 2008. Rates of g-tube placement and length of dependence on enteral feedings were analyzed in relationship to multiple risk factors. RESULTS: Forty-three patients with hypopharyngeal primary tumors (77%) who had a complete response at the primary site after treatment were included. Thirteen patients (30%) never required g-tube placement. At 1-year follow-up, 11 patients (28%) maintained a g-tube. No clinical variables were significantly associated with g-tube placement. Duration of g-tube dependence was significantly longer in patients with a posterior hypopharyngeal wall primary tumors (p = .026), current smokers (p = .001), and patients with >40 pack-years (p = .010). The duration of g-tube dependence was significantly shorter in those who maintained oral intake at the end of treatment (p = .05), and those who reported adherence to dysphagia exercise regimens (p = .048). CONCLUSION: Approximately one third of patients with hypopharyngeal tumors treated on organ preservation regimens may be able to avoid g-tube placement, but further research is needed to identify clinical factors that predict g-tube placement in this population. A posterior hypopharyngeal wall primary and smoking history correlated with longer gastrostomy tube dependence. Adherence to aggressive targeted swallowing exercise regimens may help to prevent long-term dependence on feeding tubes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.

Concepts: Cancer, Feeding tube, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has evolved as the preferred organ preservation strategy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). This approach increases malnutrition, and thus, establishing a direct enteral feeding route is essential. To evaluate the usefulness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in HNC patients receiving definitive CRT, we performed a prospective evaluation of HNC patients over a 6-month period. Patients and tumor characteristics, nutritional status 30 days after PEG insertion and technique complications were evaluated. We also assessed the long-term PEG usage. Forty-seven PEGs were placed and only 2 patients did not use it. The mean time of PEG use was 131 days (4-255) and mean duration of exclusive utilization was 71 days (4-180). On 30th day after procedure, 34/45 (76 %) patients had lost weight, but only 10/45 (22 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their initial weight. The most frequent complications were minor peristomal infections, which were correlated with proton-pump inhibitor use before PEG placement (OR 3.91, 95 % CI 1.01-15.2, and p = 0.049). One year later, 19 % of patients in remission continue needing PEG. Enteric nutritional support is essential during and after CRT in HNC patients. Most patients lost weight even with PEG. One-fifth of patients in remission required long-term PEG utilization.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Nutrition, Obesity, Preference, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

5

The evidence regarding the use of feeding tubes in persons with advanced dementia to prevent or heal pressure ulcers is conflicting. Using national data, we set out to determine whether percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes prevent or help heal pressure ulcers in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced cognitive impairment (ACI).

Concepts: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

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Background Early enteral feeding through a nasoenteric feeding tube is often used in patients with severe acute pancreatitis to prevent gut-derived infections, but evidence to support this strategy is limited. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing early nasoenteric tube feeding with an oral diet at 72 hours after presentation to the emergency department in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods We enrolled patients with acute pancreatitis who were at high risk for complications on the basis of an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 8 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 71, with higher scores indicating more severe disease), an Imrie or modified Glasgow score of 3 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating more severe disease), or a serum C-reactive protein level of more than 150 mg per liter. Patients were randomly assigned to nasoenteric tube feeding within 24 hours after randomization (early group) or to an oral diet initiated 72 hours after presentation (on-demand group), with tube feeding provided if the oral diet was not tolerated. The primary end point was a composite of major infection (infected pancreatic necrosis, bacteremia, or pneumonia) or death during 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 208 patients were enrolled at 19 Dutch hospitals. The primary end point occurred in 30 of 101 patients (30%) in the early group and in 28 of 104 (27%) in the on-demand group (risk ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.44; P=0.76). There were no significant differences between the early group and the on-demand group in the rate of major infection (25% and 26%, respectively; P=0.87) or death (11% and 7%, respectively; P=0.33). In the on-demand group, 72 patients (69%) tolerated an oral diet and did not require tube feeding. Conclusions This trial did not show the superiority of early nasoenteric tube feeding, as compared with an oral diet after 72 hours, in reducing the rate of infection or death in patients with acute pancreatitis at high risk for complications. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and others; PYTHON Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN18170985 .).

Concepts: Inflammation, Randomized controlled trial, Feeding tube, Randomness, Dieting, C-reactive protein, Acute pancreatitis, Enteral feeding