SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: English-language films

314

Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.

Concepts: English-language films, Demonstration, Cultural studies, Human behavior, Theft, Dishonesty, Intrinsic value

255

As practicing pediatricians who have lost patients to gun violence, we join our colleagues in mourning the 20 children and their teachers who were killed in Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012. Our sadness is deepened by our knowledge that the deaths, terror, and post-traumatic stress of the relatives and friends left behind could have been prevented. Prevention is the core of pediatric work. We aim to protect children from all things that can harm them. Injuries are the biggest threat to U.S. children over 1 year of age. In 2010, gun-related injuries accounted for 6570 deaths of children and . . .

Concepts: Physician, English-language films, Prevention, Pediatrics, The Core, Terrorism, Disaster film, Mourning

226

BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker’s license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker’s license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic-the tobacco industry-and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

Concepts: Tobacco, English-language films, Vector space, Proposal, Focusing, Limit, Limit of a sequence, Ryan Reynolds

193

BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker’s license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker’s license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic-the tobacco industry-and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

Concepts: Tobacco, English-language films, Vector space, Proposal, Focusing, Limit, Limit of a sequence, Ryan Reynolds

171

Since women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to be physically inactive and engage in higher levels of sedentary behavior than women living in more advantaged neighborhoods, it is important to develop and test the feasibility of strategies aimed to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst this high-risk target group. Thirty-seven women (aged 19-85) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood, and five key stakeholders, received a suite of potential intervention materials and completed a qualitative questionnaire assessing the perceived feasibility of strategies aimed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Thematic analyses were performed. Women perceived the use of a locally-relevant information booklet as a feasible strategy to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Including weight-loss information was suggested to motivate women to be active. Half the women felt the best delivery method was mailed leaflets. Other suggestions included reference books and websites. Many women mentioned that an online activity calendar was motivational but too time-consuming to commit to. Most women preferred the information booklet as a strategy to increase physical activity/reduce sedentary behavior, yet several suggested that using the booklet together with the online calendar may be more effective. These findings make an important contribution to research informing the development of intervention strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Concepts: Psychology, Obesity, Educational psychology, English-language films, Qualitative research, Motivation, Strategy, Neighbourhood

151

Rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is uncommon and can occur spontaneously or following trauma. If suspected, it should be diagnosed promptly, enabling early surgical management and good restoration of function.

Concepts: English-language films, Psychological trauma, Tibialis anterior muscle, Tibialis posterior muscle

142

Scar endometriosis is an uncommon but well-described condition. It is caused by the dissemination of endometrial tissue in the wound at the time of surgery. The deposits can involve uterine scar, abdominal musculature or subcutaneous tissue, with the latter being the most common. It usually presents as a palpable mass at the scar site with or without cyclical pain. We report three cases of scar endometriosis which presented with cyclical pain and swelling at the abdominal wall scar following uterine surgery. The patients underwent imaging which revealed abnormal findings at the scar site suggesting scar endometriosis. In the presence of strong clinical suspicion and supportive imaging, all three of them underwent local excision of the lesion. The diagnosis of endometriosis was confirmed on histopathology.

Concepts: Surgery, English-language films, Menstrual cycle, Pelvis, Endometrium, Subcutaneous tissue, Adenomyosis, Human abdomen

124

In November 1636, the prices of tulip bulbs in the Dutch market rose rapidly from their normal level to the point where a single bulb might sell for 10 times the annual earnings of a typical worker. Just as quickly, in May 1637, tulip-bulb prices returned to their previous values. The causes of this dramatic rise and fall remain in dispute. The event occurred during the Dutch Golden Age, when stock exchanges, central banking, and many of the fundamental structures that govern contemporary capital markets and the approaches deployed by MBAs today were developed. One modern economic analysis suggests that . . .

Concepts: English-language films, Netherlands, Stock market, Stock exchange, Economic bubble, Great Depression, Bulb, Tulip mania

71

Taxi services are a vital part of urban transportation, and a considerable contributor to traffic congestion and air pollution causing substantial adverse effects on human health. Sharing taxi trips is a possible way of reducing the negative impact of taxi services on cities, but this comes at the expense of passenger discomfort quantifiable in terms of a longer travel time. Due to computational challenges, taxi sharing has traditionally been approached on small scales, such as within airport perimeters, or with dynamical ad hoc heuristics. However, a mathematical framework for the systematic understanding of the tradeoff between collective benefits of sharing and individual passenger discomfort is lacking. Here we introduce the notion of shareability network, which allows us to model the collective benefits of sharing as a function of passenger inconvenience, and to efficiently compute optimal sharing strategies on massive datasets. We apply this framework to a dataset of millions of taxi trips taken in New York City, showing that with increasing but still relatively low passenger discomfort, cumulative trip length can be cut by 40% or more. This benefit comes with reductions in service cost, emissions, and with split fares, hinting toward a wide passenger acceptance of such a shared service. Simulation of a realistic online system demonstrates the feasibility of a shareable taxi service in New York City. Shareability as a function of trip density saturates fast, suggesting effectiveness of the taxi sharing system also in cities with much sparser taxi fleets or when willingness to share is low.

Concepts: City, United Kingdom, English-language films, New York City, New York, Collective, Rush hour, Congestion pricing

71

Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony.

Concepts: Psychology, Sociology, English-language films, Empathy, Emotion, Affect display, Affective science, Facebook