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Concept: Endurance training


We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session.

Concepts: Improve, Obesity, Sensitivity and specificity, Exercise, Running, Endurance training, Interval training, Long slow distance


The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO(2max) than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, P < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-) ] (22 ± 14% vs 10 ± 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO(2max) , power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-) ], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD.

Concepts: Effect, Training, Performance, Effect size, Aerobic exercise, Play, Periodization, Endurance training


Training for a triathlon is a very demanding pursuit. There are a multitude of problems, such as overuse injuries, overtraining, and inappropriate training that can derail even the best athlete. We present some of the symptoms to look for to avoid overtraining, some training tips to maximize your training time, and look at some popular myths that surround endurance training.

Concepts: Time, Training, Religion, Supercompensation, Endurance, Endurance training


The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000 meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period.

Concepts: Present, Time, Training, Primary education, Endurance, Endurance training


Regular monitoring of adaptation to training is important for optimizing training load and recovery, which is the main factor in successful training. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a novel submaximal running test in field conditions in predicting and tracking changes of endurance performance. Methods: Thirty five endurance trained men and women (aged from 20 to 55 years) completed the 18-weeks endurance training program. Maximal incremental running test was performed at weeks 0, 9 and 18 for determination of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and running speed (RS) at exhaustion (RSpeak) and lactate thresholds (LT). In addition, the subjects performed weekly a three staged submaximal running test (SRT), including a post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) measurement. The subjects were retrospectively grouped into four clusters according to changes in SRT results. Results: Large correlations (r=0.60-0.89) were observed between RS during all stages of SRT, and all endurance performance variables (VO2max, RSpeak, RS at LT2 and RS at LT1). HRR correlated only with VO2max (r=0.46). Large relationships were also found between changes in RS during 80% and 90% HRmax stages of SRT and a change of RSpeak (r=0.57, r=0.79). In addition, the cluster analysis revealed the different trends in RS during 80% and 90% stages during the training between the clusters, which showed different improvements in VO2max and RSpeak. Conclusions: The present submaximal test showed great potential as a practical tool for regular monitoring of individual adaptation to endurance training without time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests&period.

Concepts: Cluster analysis, Economics, Training, Cost, Exercise physiology, Running, VO2 max, Endurance training


Several strategies have been used to improve running economy (RE). Defined as the oxygen uptake required at a given submaximal running velocity, it has been considered a key aerobic parameter related to endurance running performance. In this context, concurrent strength and endurance training has been considered an effective method, although conclusions on the optimal concurrent training cannot yet be drawn.

Concepts: Improve, Exercise, Strength training, Endurance training


This study investigated effects of far-infrared sauna (FIRS) bathing on recovery from strength training and endurance training sessions, but also possible differences between FIRS and traditional (TRAD) Finnish sauna bathing.

Concepts: Exercise, Bathing, Endurance training


The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive-strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle and long distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=18, twelve men) and an explosive-strength training group (TG, n=18, ten men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4 km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive-strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive-strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not showed any significant change in performance, while the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4 km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20m sprint time (-2.3%), and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive-performance. TG also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, while the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive-strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle and long distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race.

Concepts: Exercise, Trigraph, Gh, Running, Sprint, Endurance, Endurance training, Long-distance track event


The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors.

Concepts: Exercise, Training, Vector space, The Current, Complex number, Endurance, Endurance training, Physical strength


Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal.

Concepts: Health care, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Exercise, High-intensity interval training, Endurance training, Interval training, Long slow distance