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Concept: Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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This study aimed to characterize the role of tropoelastin in eliciting a nitric oxide response in endothelial cells.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Endothelium, Nitric oxide, Vasodilation, Arginine, Nitric oxide synthase, Nitric acid, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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There is accumulating evidence that makes the link between the circadian variation in blood pressure and circadian variations in vascular contraction. The importance of vascular endothelium-derived redox-active and redox-derived species in the signalling pathways involved in controlling vascular smooth muscle contraction are well known, and when linked to the circadian variations in the processes involved in generating these species, suggests a cellular mechanism for the circadian variations in blood pressure that links directly to the peripheral circadian clock. Relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells involves endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) which is nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) which includes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by NADPH oxidase (Nox). Both of these enzymes appear to be under the direct control of the circadian clock mechanism in the endothelial cells and disruption to the clock results in endothelial and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we focus on EDRF and EDHF and summarise the recent findings on the influence of the peripheral circadian clock mechanism on process involved in generating the redox species involved and how this influences vascular contractility, which may account for some of the circadian variations in blood pressure and peripheral resistance. Moreover, the direct link between the peripheral circadian clock and redox-signalling pathways in the vasculature, has a bearing on vascular endothelial dysfunction in disease and aging, which are both known to lead to dysfunction of the circadian clock.

Concepts: Heart, Blood vessel, Actin, Endothelium, Muscle contraction, Smooth muscle, Nitric oxide, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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The endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) serves as a back-up mechanism that compensates for reduced nitric oxide (NO)/prostanoids bioavailability. Here we investigated whether (i) under conditions of vascular endothelium dysfunction, the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) upregulates EDHF-dependent renal vasodilations through altering CYP4A/CYP2C signaling, and (ii) calcium channel blockers modulate the CSA/EDHF/CYP interaction. Rats were treated with CSA, verapamil, nifedipine, or their combinations for 7days. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. Kidneys were then isolated, perfused with physiological solution containing L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) and diclofenac (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, DIC), and preconstricted with phenylephrine. CSA (25mgkg(-1)day(-1) for 7days) increased BP and augmented carbachol renal vasodilations. The co-treatment with verapamil (2mgkg(-1)day(-1)) or nifedipine (3mgkg(-1)day(-1)) abolished CSA hypertension and conversely affected carbachol vasodilations (increases vs. decreases). Infusion of MSPPOH (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, EETs, inhibitor) reduced carbachol vasodilations in kidneys of all rat groups, suggesting the importance of EETs in these responses. By contrast, 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid (20-HETE) inhibition by HET0016 increased carbachol vasodilations in control rats, an effect that disappeared by CSA treatment, and reappeared in rats treated with CSA/verapamil or CSA/nifedipine. Renal protein expression of CYP2C and CYP4A as well as their vasoactive products (EETs/20-HETE) were increased in CSA-treated rats. Whereas the CYP2C/EETs effects of CSA were abolished by verapamil and intensified by nifedipine, the CYP4A/20-HETE effects were reduced by either CCB. Overall, nifedipine and verapamil blunts CSA hypertension but variably affected concomitantly enhanced EDHF-dependent renal vasodilations and alterations in CYP2C/CYP4A signaling.

Concepts: Hypertension, Effect, Blood pressure, Endothelium, Calcium channel blocker, Renin, Novartis, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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Vascular endothelium induces smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation mainly mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). It has previously been reported that functions of these endothelium factors have been greatly impaired in vein grafts. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the functions of EDNO and EDHF might be altered in artery graft.Methods and Results:In rabbits, the right carotid artery was excised and implanted in its original position as an autogenous graft (“artery graft”) and the non-operated left carotid artery served as the “control artery”. Histochemical changes, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced effects on the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+)([Ca(2+)]i) in endothelial cells, endothelium-dependent SMC hyperpolarization and relaxation, and tissue cGMP content were examined on post-operative day 28. “Artery graft” displayed a minimal amount of intimal hyperplasia. When compared with the “control artery”, it exhibited greater ACh-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation, but the reverse was true when EDNO production was blocked. In the “artery graft” (vs. the “control artery”), basal cGMP content was greater, whereas the [Ca(2+)]iincrease in endothelial cells and the endothelium-dependent SMC-hyperpolarization induced by ACh were less.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Artery, Common carotid artery, Endothelium, Smooth muscle, Nitric oxide, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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H2S is a novel vasoactivator. To verify the hypothesis that H2S may act as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the rat cerebrovasculature, the role of H2S in endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-mediated responses was investigated.

Concepts: Cardiovascular system, Rat, Hydrogen sulfide, ACT, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor

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Although endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation of retinal arterioles has been well described, the role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in the retinal arteriolar response remains unclear. In the current study, we examined the contribution of EDHF to the retinal arteriolar dilation to the inflammatory agent histamine and investigated the signaling mechanisms underlying this vasomotor activity.

Concepts: Cardiovascular system, The Current, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, Vasodilators

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The aim of the present study was to observe the concomitant activation of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways by TRPV4 channel agonist GSK1016790A in the rat pulmonary artery and explore the mechanism by which NO synthase inhibition attenuates EDHF-mediated relaxation in endothelium-intact rat pulmonary artery.

Concepts: Present, Time, Heart, Pulmonary artery, Cardiovascular system, Nitric oxide, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor

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The endothelium contributes to the maintenance of vasodilator tone by releasing nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In hypertension, endothelium-dependent relaxation is attenuated (a phenomenon referred to as endothelial dysfunction) and contributes to the increased peripheral resistance. However, which vasodilator among NO, PGI2, and EDHF is impaired in hypertension remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to study the exact contribution of NO, PGI2, and EDHF to vascular reactivity in conduit and resistance artery, under physiological and pathological conditions. The aorta and the second-order mesenteric artery from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to measure the vasorelaxation with myograph technology, in the presence or absence of different inhibitors. The results showed that the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the conduit artery was mediated mainly by NO, whereas the resistant artery by NO, PGI2, and EDHF together. In hypertension, both NO-mediated relaxation in the conduit artery and NO-, PGI2-, and EDHF-mediated dilation in the resistant artery were markedly impaired. Furthermore, the endothelium-dependent and the endothelium-independent vasorelaxation in conduit artery was attenuated more pronouncedly than that in the resistant artery from hypertensive rats, suggesting that the conduit artery is more vulnerable to hypertensive condition. In conclusion, vasodilators including NO, PGI2, and EDHF contribute distinctively to endothelium-dependent relaxation in conduit and resistance artery under physiological and pathological conditions.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Blood pressure, Endothelium, Cardiovascular system, Nitric oxide, Vasodilation, Vasoconstriction, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

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Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an outcome of decreased release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance of vascular action produced by endothelium-derived contracting factors. Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure include notable vascular changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings with new information that can provide more comprehensive understanding the role of endothelial dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts the aim of this article was to review the latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released from 2010 to 2015.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Nitrogen, Endothelium, Nitric oxide, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor