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Concept: Endoscopy


BACKGROUND: Validation of administrative data is important to assess potential sources of bias in outcome evaluation and to prevent dissemination of misleading or inaccurate information. The purpose of the study was to determine the completeness and accuracy of endoscopy data in several administrative data sources in the year prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis as part of a larger project focused on evaluating the quality of pre-diagnostic care. Methods: Primary and secondary data sources for endoscopy were collected from the Alberta Cancer Registry, cancer medical charts and three different administrative data sources. 1672 randomly sampled patients diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer in years 2000-2005 in Alberta, Canada were included. A retrospective validation study of administrative data for endoscopy in the year prior to colorectal cancer diagnosis was conducted. A gold standard dataset was created by combining all the datasets. Number and percent identified, agreement and percent unique to a given data source were calculated and compared across each dataset and to the gold standard with respect to identifying all patients who underwent endoscopy and all endoscopies received by those patients. Results: The combined administrative data and physician billing data identified as high or higher percentage of patients who had one or more endoscopy (84% and 78%, respectively) and total endoscopy procedures (89% and 81%, respectively) than the chart review (78% for both). Conclusions: Endoscopy data has a high level of completeness and accuracy in physician billing data alone. Combined with hospital in/outpatient data it is more complete than chart review alone.

Concepts: Percentage point, Data set, Sigmoidoscopy, Physician, Endoscopy, Data, Evaluation, Colorectal cancer


BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of rigid pericardial endoscopy as the promising minimally invasive approach to the pericardial space was evaluated. Techniques for cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation were developed. METHODS: Two swine and 5 canines were studied to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rigid pericardial endoscopy. After a double pericardiocentesis, a transurethral rigid endoscope was inserted into the pericardial space. The technique to obtain a clear visual field was examined, and acute complications such as hemodynamic changes and the effects on intra-pericardial pressure were evaluated. Using custom-made needles, pacemaker leads, and forceps, the applications for cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation were also evaluated. RESULTS: The use of air, the detention of a stiff guide wire in the pericardial space, and the stretching of the pericardium with the rigid endoscope were all useful to obtain a clear visual field. A side-lying position also aided observation of the posterior side of the heart. As a cell transplantation methodology, we developed an ultrasonography-guided needle, which allows for the safe visualization of transplantation without major complications. Pacemaker leads were safely and properly implanted, which provides a better outcome for cardiac resynchronizing therapy. Furthermore, the success of clear visualization of the pulmonary veins enabled us to perform epicardial ablation. CONCLUSIONS: Rigid pericardial endoscopy holds promise as a safe method for minimally invasive cell transplantation, epicardial pacemaker lead implantation, and epicardial ablation by allowing clear visualization of the pericardial space.

Concepts: Optical fiber, Effectiveness, Safety, Pericardium, Minimally invasive, Artificial pacemaker, Endoscopy, Heart


Bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic strictures often occur after surgery for a pancreaticobiliary disorder. Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using balloon enteroscopy has been shown to be feasible and effective in patients with such strictures. However, when a benign anastomotic stricture is severe, a dilation catheter cannot pass through the stricture despite successful insertion of the guidewire. We report on the usefulness of the Soehendra Stent Retriever over a guidewire for dilating a severe bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic stricture under short double-balloon enteroscopy, in two patients with surgically altered anatomies.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Double-balloon enteroscopy, Gastroenterology, Enteroscopy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy


Camera-guided instruments, such as endoscopes, have become an essential component of contemporary medicine. The 15-20 million endoscopies performed every year in the United States alone demonstrate the tremendous impact of this technology. However, doctors heavily rely on the visual feedback provided by the endoscope camera, which is routinely compromised when body fluids and fogging occlude the lens, requiring lengthy cleaning procedures that include irrigation, tissue rubbing, suction, and even temporary removal of the endoscope for external cleaning. Bronchoscopies are especially affected because they are performed on delicate tissue, in high-humidity environments with exposure to extremely adhesive biological fluids such as mucus and blood. Here, we present a repellent, liquid-infused coating on an endoscope lens capable of preventing vision loss after repeated submersions in blood and mucus. The material properties of the coating, including conformability, mechanical adhesion, transparency, oil type, and biocompatibility, were optimized in comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo studies. Extensive bronchoscopy procedures performed in vivo on porcine lungs showed significantly reduced fouling, resulting in either unnecessary or ∼10-15 times shorter and less intensive lens clearing procedures compared with an untreated endoscope. We believe that the material developed in this study opens up opportunities in the design of next-generation endoscopes that will improve visual field, display unprecedented antibacterial and antifouling properties, reduce the duration of the procedure, and enable visualization of currently unreachable parts of the body, thus offering enormous potential for disease diagnosis and treatment.

Concepts: Optical fiber, Blood, In vitro, Bronchoscopy, Endoscopy, In vivo


To investigate the clinical impact of capsule endoscopy (CE) after an obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) episode, focusing on diagnostic work-up, follow-up and predictive factors of rebleeding.

Concepts: Colonoscopy, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Endoscopy, Gastroenterology


Background Postinfectious hydrocephalus in infants is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The conventional treatment is ventriculoperitoneal shunting, but surgeons are usually not immediately available to revise shunts when they fail. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV-CPC) is an alternative treatment that is less subject to late failure but is also less likely than shunting to result in a reduction in ventricular size that might facilitate better brain growth and cognitive outcomes. Methods We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate cognitive outcomes after ETV-CPC versus ventriculoperitoneal shunting in Ugandan infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus. The primary outcome was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-3), cognitive scaled score 12 months after surgery (scores range from 1 to 19, with higher scores indicating better performance). The secondary outcomes were BSID-3 motor and language scores, treatment failure (defined as treatment-related death or the need for repeat surgery), and brain volume measured on computed tomography. Results A total of 100 infants were enrolled; 51 were randomly assigned to undergo ETV-CPC, and 49 were assigned to undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The median BSID-3 cognitive scores at 12 months did not differ significantly between the treatment groups (a score of 4 for ETV-CPC and 2 for ventriculoperitoneal shunting; Hodges-Lehmann estimated difference, 0; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2 to 0; P=0.35). There was no significant difference between the ETV-CPC group and the ventriculoperitoneal-shunt group in BSID-3 motor or language scores, rates of treatment failure (35% and 24%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.5; P=0.24), or brain volume (z score, -2.4 and -2.1, respectively; estimated difference, 0.3; 95% CI, -0.3 to 1.0; P=0.12). Conclusions This single-center study involving Ugandan infants with postinfectious hydrocephalus showed no significant difference between endoscopic ETV-CPC and ventriculoperitoneal shunting with regard to cognitive outcomes at 12 months. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT01936272 .).

Concepts: Child development, Endoscopy, Mathematics, Surgery, Cerebrospinal fluid, Infant, Normal distribution, Ventricular system


Fluorescence Imaging (FI) is a powerful technique in biological science and clinical medicine. Current FI devices that are used either for in-vivo or in-vitro studies are expensive, bulky and consume substantial power, confining the technique to laboratories and hospital examination rooms. Here we present a miniaturised wireless fluorescence endoscope capsule with low power consumption that will pave the way for future FI systems and applications. With enhanced sensitivity compared to existing technology we have demonstrated that the capsule can be successfully used to image tissue autofluorescence and targeted fluorescence via fluorophore labelling of tissues. The capsule incorporates a state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor single photon avalanche detector imaging array, miniaturised optical isolation, wireless technology and low power design. When in use the capsule consumes only 30.9 mW, and deploys very low-level 468 nm illumination. The device has the potential to replace highly power-hungry intrusive optical fibre based endoscopes and to extend the range of clinical examination below the duodenum. To demonstrate the performance of our capsule, we imaged fluorescence phantoms incorporating principal tissue fluorophores (flavins) and absorbers (haemoglobin). We also demonstrated the utility of marker identification by imaging a 20 μM fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling solution on mammalian tissue.

Concepts: Fluorescein isothiocyanate, Fluorescent dyes, Fluorophore, Oxygen, Optical fiber, Endoscopy, Fluorescein


Screening colonoscopy (SC) outcome quality is best determined by the adenoma detection rate (ADR). The substantial variability in the ADRs between endoscopists may reflect different skills, experience and/or equipment.

Concepts: Endoscopy, Reaction rate, American Depositary Receipt, Rates, Determinacy


OBJECTIVE: To develop and test the safety and feasibility of a novel anti-biofilm mechanism configured for wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in a sheep bladder model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A WCE mechanism, designed for long-term bladder monitoring, was developed and introduced into a sheep bladder for 5 months. The transparency of the surface was assessed by evaluating a resolution target placed inside the capsule at serial intervals using cystoscopy under general anaesthesia. Animal behaviour, voiding patterns and urine cultures were monitored throughout the study. At study termination, the capsule was extracted and assessed using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The resolution target was visualized clearly at all investigation points. No notable adverse effects were noted during the entire follow-up period and no urinary tract infection occurred. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the efficacy of the technology to prevent biofilm formation and surface encrustation. CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel technology that effectively prevents biofilm formation on the outer surface of foreign objects in the urinary tract. Further studies are under way to test the applicability of this technology in bladder WCE to enable high-quality wireless image transmission.

Concepts: Scanning electron microscope, Urinary tract infection, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Endoscopy, Urethra, Kidney, Urine


The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and the impact on weight loss of a new swallowable gastric balloon. In this prospective pilot study, 17 overweight or obese patients were included. Up to three balloons were ingested under fluoroscopic control. All balloons were removed by upper GI endoscopy, 12 weeks after the ingestion of the first balloon. 43 out of 44 attempts (98 %) to swallow a balloon were successful. Nausea and stomach pain were the most frequent side effects. Endoscopic procedures for balloon removal were uneventful. Weight loss was significant at weeks 4, 8, and 12. This pilot study showed no significant side effects induced by up to three balloons, and a significant weight loss.

Concepts: AIDS, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Obesity, Endoscopy, Digestive system, HIV, Weight loss, Cancer