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Concept: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography


Bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic strictures often occur after surgery for a pancreaticobiliary disorder. Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using balloon enteroscopy has been shown to be feasible and effective in patients with such strictures. However, when a benign anastomotic stricture is severe, a dilation catheter cannot pass through the stricture despite successful insertion of the guidewire. We report on the usefulness of the Soehendra Stent Retriever over a guidewire for dilating a severe bilioenteric or pancreatoenteric anastomotic stricture under short double-balloon enteroscopy, in two patients with surgically altered anatomies.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Gastroenterology, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Enteroscopy, Double-balloon enteroscopy


Even in expert hands, there can be serious complications when performing an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The most frequent complications are pancreatitis, cholangitis, bleeding, perforation, and acute cholecystitis. The hepatic subcapsular haematoma is a rare complication, with few cases described worldwide.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Ascending cholangitis, Jaundice


Groove pancreatitis (GP) is an uncommon disease involving the pancreaticoduodenal area. Possible pathogenesis includes obstructive pancreatitis in the duct of Santorini and impaired communication with the duct of Wirsung, minor papilla stenosis, and leakage causing inflammation. Limited data regarding endoscopic treatment have been published.

Concepts: Duodenum, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Pancreatic duct, Accessory pancreatic duct, Johann Georg Wirsung, Minor duodenal papilla


Abstract Objective. Endoscopic sphincterotomy plus large-balloon dilatation (ESLBD) has an efficacy equal to or higher than that of endoscopic sphincterotomy alone for biliary lithiasis extractions. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and morbidity of large-balloon dilatation of the sphincter of Oddi after sphincterotomy or infundibulotomy for large or multiple common bile duct stones. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis. Results. A total of 64 ESLBD procedures were performed in 62 patients: 57 after sphincterotomy and 7 after infundibulotomy. The feasibility was 100%, and full clearance of the common bile duct was achieved in a single session without using mechanical lithotripsy in 95.3% of cases. Short-term complications were observed in 9 patients (14%). There were no perforations. The most frequent complication was delayed bleeding (7.8%). There was no significant difference of overall complications after sphincterotomy or after infundibulotomy (12.3% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.25). The incidence of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher after infundibulotomy than after sphincterotomy (28.6% vs. 0%, p = 0.01). Conclusions. ESLBD after endoscopic sphincterotomy or infundibulotomy is a simple, reproducible and effective technique, associated with a low morbidity rate and helps in avoiding mechanical lithotripsy in 95.3% of cases for the endoscopic extraction of large or multiple common bile duct stones.

Concepts: Digestive system, Bile, Bile duct, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Common bile duct, Choledocholithiasis


This review summarizes recent innovations in the approaches to gallbladder disease, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, cholecystectomy with natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, percutaneous cholecystostomy, and peroral endoscopic gallbladder drainage.

Concepts: Surgery, Laparoscopic surgery, Gallbladder, Cholecystectomy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Common hepatic duct, Cystic duct


Pancreatitis is the most common major complication of ERCP and precut endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). Prophylactic pancreatic duct (PD) stent placement has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk settings.

Concepts: Pancreas, Bile, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Pancreatic duct


Few studies have described the role of multimodality therapy and the complexity of endoscopic management of pancreatic duct disruption. Our study aim was to analyse and confirm factors associated with the resolution of pancreatic duct disruption.

Concepts: Pancreas, Cultural studies, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy


While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with gallstones, frequency of severe cholecystitis and cholangitis, onset of cholecystitis and cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and medications, mortality rate, and recurrence rate. The primary etiology of acute cholangitis/cholecystitis is the presence of stones. Next to stones, the most significant etiology of acute cholangitis is benign/malignant stenosis of the biliary tract. On the other hand, there is another type of acute cholecystitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis, in which stones are not involved as causative factors. Risk factors for acute acalculous cholecystitis include surgery, trauma, burn, and parenteral nutrition. After 2000, the mortality rate of acute cholangitis has been about 10 %, while that of acute cholecystitis has generally been less than 1 %. After the publication of TG07, diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria were standardized, and the distribution of cases according to severity and comparison of clinical data among target populations have become more subjective. The concept of healthcare-associated infections is important in the current treatment of infection. The treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis substantially differs from that of community-acquired infections. Cholangitis and cholecystitis as healthcare-associated infections are clearly described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13).Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via .

Concepts: Epidemiology, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Ascending cholangitis, Cholecystitis


Pancreatitis is the most common serious complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We performed a pilot study to determine whether aggressive peri-procedural hydration with lactated Ringer’s solution reduces the incidence of pancreatitis following ERCP.

Concepts: Intravenous fluids, Lactic acid, Lactated Ringer's solution, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Saline, Hartmann's Solution


Calculi in the cystic duct remnant are one of the causes of postcholecystectomy syndrome. A 36-year-old woman presented thrice to the casualty department with right upper quadrant pain at an interval of 2 months every time. Ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen was normal except for echoes in the gallbladder region may be clips. She was treated conservatively and discharged the first two times. The second time, the MR cholangiopancreatography was normal. She had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy with stent in situ outside elsewhere before presenting to us for the third time, which was removed after 6-weeks. The third time, she was taken up for laparoscopic stump exploration, which revealed a stone, which was the cause of her pain. To conclude, stump stone can be a possibility of post cholecystectomy syndrome even after 6 years, and surgeons should be aware of it.

Concepts: Abdomen, Gallbladder, Cholecystectomy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, Cystic duct, Postcholecystectomy syndrome