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Concept: Endometriosis


Several studies suggest that resistance to progesterone may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Progesterone mediates its biological activity via the 2 progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PR-A and PR-B). Effects of progesterone are determined by the PR-A:PR-B ratio such that a PR-B-dominant state promotes progesterone signaling, whereas a PR-A-dominant state decreases progesterone responsiveness. Our objective was to compare the abundance and cellular localization of the PR isoforms in endometrium and endometriotic lesions from women with and without peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis.

Concepts: Selective progesterone receptor modulator, Corpus luteum, Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Progesterone, Estrogen, Endometriosis


Assisted reproductive technology is one of the therapeutic options offered for managing endometriosis-associated infertility. Yet, published data on assisted reproductive technology outcome in women affected by endometriosis are conflicting and the determinant factors for pregnancy chances unclear.

Concepts: Endometriosis, Reproductive technology, Fertility medicine, Reproduction, Fertility, Pregnancy, Assisted reproductive technology, Infertility


To evaluate the cumulative recurrence rate of endometriomas after a laparoscopic endometriotic cyst enucleation in adolescents and to find the factors associated with recurrence.

Concepts: Endometriosis, Ovarian cyst


This study is a comparison of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) with cancer antigen 125 (CA125), using the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), Copenhagen Index (CPH-I), Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) and Morphology Index (MI) to differentiate ovarian endometriosis from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in premenopausal women.

Concepts: Protein, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Molecular biology, Biochemistry, CA-125, Endometriosis, Hysterectomy, Ovarian cancer


Selective progesterone receptor modulators have shown efficacy in the treatment of endometriosis, however they are not currently licensed in Canada for this purpose. Their histomorphological effects have been well documented in the endometrium, but not in endometriosis.

Concepts: Menstrual cycle, Endometrium, Progesterone receptor, Endometriosis, Progesterone, Selective progesterone receptor modulator


Objective: To determine the levels of coagulation and inflammatory factors in women with moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis so as to investigate the possible role of coagulation and inflammatory factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.Methods:From June 2015 and June 2017, clinical data of 366 patients with pathologically diagnosed moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis (case group) and 244 patients with pathologically diagnosed benign ovarian cysts (control group) in Women’s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed. The levels of coagulation indicators, inflammatory factors and serum tumor markers were measured. Then, the values of these indicators in diagnosis of endometriosis were analyzed.Results:(1) The levels of plasma prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) in patients with ovarian endometriosis [median: 12.8 s (range: 12.4-13.2 s) and 15.5 s (range: 15.1-15.9 s), respectively] were significantly shorter than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 13.0 s (range: 12.5-13.4 s) and 15.7 s (range: 15.3-16.1 s), respectively; allP<0.01]. The levels of plasma fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer [D-D; median: 3.1 g/L (range: 2.8-3.5 g/L) and 0.9 mg/L (range: 0.6-2.1 mg/L) , respectively] in patients with ovarian endometriosis were significantly higher than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 2.8 g/L (range: 2.6-3.2 g/L) and 0.6 mg/L (range: 0.4-1.2 mg/L), respectively;P=0.000]. Moreover, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio [PLR; median: 2.3 (range: 1.8-3.1) and 144 (range: 113-179), respectively] in patients with ovarian endometriosis were significantly higher than those with benign ovarian cysts [median: 2.1 (range: 1.6-2.8) and 128 (range: 104-165), respectively;P<0.01]. Furthermore, in patients with ovarian endometriosis, the levels of PT were significantly shorter in stage Ⅳ endometriosis than that in stage Ⅲ endometriosis (P<0.05). The levels of FIB and PLR in patients with stage Ⅳ endometriosis were significantly higher than those in patients with stage Ⅲ endometriosis (P<0.01) . (2) The cut-off value of CA(125) was 27.2 kU/L with a sensitivity of 83.6%, the cut-off value of FIB was 3.1 g/L with a sensitivity of 53.2%, while the sensitivity of combination index (FIB×CA(125)) was 84.9%.Conclusion:The abnormality of coagulation and inflammatory factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis, and the detection of coagulation and inflammatory factors may be have important clinical significance for the diagnosis and treatment of moderate and severe ovarian endometriosis.

Concepts: Prothrombin time, Oncology, Endometriosis, Ovarian cancer, Zhejiang University, Coagulation, Pathology, Ovarian cyst


Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign neoplasm of the female pelvis and have a lifetime prevalence exceeding 80% among African American women and approaching 70% among Caucasian women. Approximately 50% of women with fibroids experience symptoms which may include menorrhagia that may result in anemia, bulk symptoms with bladder and bowel dysfunction and abdominal protrusion, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Hysterectomy remains the most common treatment option for fibroids and concerns have been raised about the overuse of this procedure. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is now a well-established uterine preserving and minimally invasive therapy for symptomatic fibroids. Since its introduction, strong evidence for safety and efficacy of UAE has been generated with low rates of complications. This review will discuss UAE for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids with special focus on emerging technical approaches and novel periprocedural patient care.

Concepts: Endometriosis, Adenomyosis, Pelvis, Gynecology, Hysterectomy, Uterine fibroids, Uterine artery embolization, Uterus


To estimate the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic surgical excision of rectovaginal endometriosis.

Concepts: Endometriosis, Cohort, Cohort study, Laparoscopy, Laparoscopic surgery, Clinical trial, Excision, Surgery


Endometriosis is a multifactorial, oestrogen-dependent, inflammatory, gynaecological condition that can result in long-lasting visceral pelvic pain and infertility. Acupuncture could be an effective treatment for endometriosis and may relieve pain. Our aim in the present study was to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for endometriosis-related pain.

Concepts: Meta-analysis, AIM Investment Management, Present, Gynecology, Endometriosis, Acupuncture, Effect, Effectiveness


Endometriosis, defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial stroma and epithelium, affects approximately 10% of reproductive-age women and can cause pelvic pain and infertility. Endometriotic lesions are considered to be benign inflammatory lesions but have cancerlike features such as local invasion and resistance to apoptosis.

Concepts: Pelvic pain, Endometrium, Gynecology, Immune system, Ionizing radiation, Cancer, Endometriosis