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Concept: Enalapril


Inhibition of neurohumoural pathways such as the renin angiotensin aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems is central to the understanding and treatment of heart failure (HF). Conversely, until recently, potentially beneficial augmentation of neurohumoural systems such as the natriuretic peptides has had limited therapeutic success. Administration of synthetic natriuretic peptides has not improved outcomes in acute HF but modulation of the natriuretic system through inhibition of the enzyme that degrades natriuretic (and other vasoactive) peptides, neprilysin, has proven to be successful. After initial failures with neprilysin inhibition alone or dual neprilysin-angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, the Prospective comparison of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) trial demonstrated that morbidity and mortality can be improved with the angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (formerly LCZ696). In comparison to the ACE inhibitor enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the occurrence of the primary end point (cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for HF) by 20% with a 16% reduction in all-cause mortality. These findings suggest that sacubitril/valsartan should replace an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker as the foundation of treatment of symptomatic patients (NYHA II-IV) with HF and a reduced ejection fraction. This review will explore the background to neprilysin inhibition in HF, the results of the PARADIGM-HF trial and offer guidance on how to use sacubitril/valsartan in clinical practice.

Concepts: Enalapril, Myocardial infarction, Heart failure, Renin-angiotensin system, Ejection fraction, Hypertension, ACE inhibitor, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist


Many prodrug reviews describe specific examples of the successful application of prodrug technology to produce blockbuster drugs, such as simvastatin, omeprazole, acyclovir and enalapril. These reviews are helpful to understand the previous success stories and case histories of prodrug technology. The aim of the current review seeks to more clearly define quantitative trends in the changes in the physicochemical property parameters between the successful prodrug and the active parent molecule. This information can serve to guide medicinal chemists toward more successful pharmaceutical prodrugs in the future.

Concepts: Physical chemistry, Enalapril, Prodrugs, World Health Organization essential medicines, Prodrug, Electrochemistry, Pharmaceutical drug, Pharmacology


Background Among patients with chronic heart failure, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and hospitalization, but the role of a renin inhibitor in such patients is unknown. We compared the ACE inhibitor enalapril with the renin inhibitor aliskiren (to test superiority or at least noninferiority) and with the combination of the two treatments (to test superiority) in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction. Methods After a single-blind run-in period, we assigned patients, in a double-blind fashion, to one of three groups: 2336 patients were assigned to receive enalapril at a dose of 5 or 10 mg twice daily, 2340 to receive aliskiren at a dose of 300 mg once daily, and 2340 to receive both treatments (combination therapy). The primary composite outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure. Results After a median follow-up of 36.6 months, the primary outcome occurred in 770 patients (32.9%) in the combination-therapy group and in 808 (34.6%) in the enalapril group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.03). The primary outcome occurred in 791 patients (33.8%) in the aliskiren group (hazard ratio vs. enalapril, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.10); the prespecified test for noninferiority was not met. There was a higher risk of hypotensive symptoms in the combination-therapy group than in the enalapril group (13.8% vs. 11.0%, P=0.005), as well as higher risks of an elevated serum creatinine level (4.1% vs. 2.7%, P=0.009) and an elevated potassium level (17.1% vs. 12.5%, P<0.001). Conclusions In patients with chronic heart failure, the addition of aliskiren to enalapril led to more adverse events without an increase in benefit. Noninferiority was not shown for aliskiren as compared with enalapril. (Funded by Novartis; ATMOSPHERE number, NCT00853658 .).

Concepts: Enalapril, Creatinine, Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Heart failure, ACE inhibitor, Ejection fraction, Hypertension


To assess the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the efficiency of the fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI), 69 goats were divided randomly into two groups: enalapril (n = 35) and control (n = 34). In the experiment, all animals underwent the protocol of fixed-time artificial insemination for 12 days. Enalapril group received enalapril maleate dissolved in saline (Enalapril, Lab Teuto Ltda) subcutaneously at the following doses: 0.2 mg/kg/day in D0-D2; 0.3 mg/kg/day in D3-D6 and 0.4 mg/kg/day in D7-D11. The control group received the corresponding volume of 0.9% saline solution. We performed a single insemination 36 hr after sponge removal using frozen semen from two adult male goats with recognized fertility. The ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis was 30 days after the artificial insemination (AI). There was significant increase in pregnancy rates and twinning as well as a decrease in foetal loss in animals receiving enalapril (p < .01). The use of ACE inhibitors during the TAI protocol was shown to be a promising alternative to increase the efficiency of such reproductive biotechnology.

Concepts: Enalapril, Fertility, Twin, Pregnancy, Artificial insemination, Pregnancy rate, ACE inhibitor, Reproduction


Enalapril is an off-patent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for which no paediatric age-appropriate formulation is commercially available in Europe, and enalapril maleate (EM) orodispersible minitablets (ODMTs) have previously been formulated within the LENA (labelling enalapril from neonates to adolescents) project. In this study, a dilution method has been developed by dispersing the lowest dose strength ODMTs to enable flexible and precise EM dosing during the dose titration phase of the therapy. Furthermore, the physicochemical stability of the ODMTs has been investigated in child-friendly beverages and the administration of ODMTs via nasogastric tubes (NGT) of different sizes and materials has been evaluated. The results for the ODMT dilution procedure reveal that dispersion within an oral syringe is preferred over dispersion in a separate container, leading to flexible and precise dosing down to 0.025 mg EM. Although ODMTs were stable in the beverages over the investigated time period, dispersion in tap water only is recommended due to prolonged disintegration times within the other kon silicone, polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride could be observed. The ODMT concept together with the investigated dispersion method enables the safe administration of EM for all paediatric subpopulations from new-borns to adolescents.

Concepts: Polyvinyl chloride, Periodization, ACE inhibitors, Enzyme inhibitor, Hypertension, Captopril, Enalapril, ACE inhibitor


We investigated whether the treatment with enalapril maleate, combined with aerobic physical training, promotes positive effects on the autonomic balance, the morphology and the cardiac function in female rats submitted to early ovarian failure.

Concepts: Cardiac fibrosis, ACE inhibitors, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Hypertension, Captopril, Enalapril, ACE inhibitor


The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for enalapril maleate (EnM) to facilitate its administration to the elderly or other patients having dysphagia. Compatibility between EnM and various excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ODTs of EnM were prepared by direct compression of EnM mixtures with various superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties including drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time and drug release. The antihypertensive effect of the optimum EnM ODTs was evaluated in vivo in hypertensive rats and compared with commercial EnM formulation. EnM ODTs had satisfactory results in terms of drug content and friability. Tablet wetting and disintegration were fast and dependent on the used superdisintegrant where croscarmellose showed the fastest wetting and disintegration time of ∼7 sec. EnM release from the tablets was rapid where complete release was obtained in 10-15 min. Selected EnM ODTs rapidly and efficiently reduced the rats' blood pressure to its normal value within 1 hour, compared with 4 hours for EnM commercial formulation. These results confirm that EnM ODTs could find application in the management of hypertension in the elderly or other patients having dysphagia.

Concepts: Enalapril, Tablet, Differential scanning calorimetry, Blood pressure, Hypertension


Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the marketing authorization of immediate release, solid oral dosage forms containing enalapril maleate are reviewed. Enalapril, a prodrug, is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to the active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat. Enalapril as the maleate salt is shown to be highly soluble, but only 60 to 70% of an orally administered dose of enalapril is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the enterocytes. Consequently, enalapril maleate is a BCS class III substance. Since in situ conversion of the maleate salt to the sodium salt is sometimes used in production of the finished drug product, not every enalapril maleate labeled finished product actually contains the maleate salt. Enalapril is not considered to have a narrow therapeutic index. With this background, a biowaiver-based approval procedure for new generic products or after major revisions to existing products is deemed acceptable, provided the in vitro dissolution of both test and reference preparation is very rapid (at least 85% within 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8). Additionally, the test and reference product must contain the identical active drug ingredient.

Concepts: In situ, In vivo, In vitro, Captopril, Prodrug, Pharmacology, ACE inhibitor, Enalapril


We aimed to examine whether baseline homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations affect antihypertensive responses to enalapril treatment among previously untreated hypertensive patients (n=10 783) in the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial).

Concepts: Blood pressure, Enalapril, Folic acid, Captopril, Enzyme inhibitor, ACE inhibitor, Hypertension, Myocardial infarction


This work aimed at developing enalapril maleate granules in order to improve its stability in solid dosage form. Granules were prepared by hot melt granulation using a fluidized bed apparatus. Gelucire 50/13®, polyethylene glycol 6000 e Poloxamer 407® were studied and compared as binders in 2 × 2 factorial designs where the proportions of enalapril maleate, binders and spray dried lactose were varied. The granulation process resulted in high yields and granule sizes that indicated the prevalence of particles coating. Furthermore, the granules obtained showed adequate flowability and a fast dissolution rate of enalapril maleate with almost 100% of the drug released in 10 min. The stability of enalapril maleate in hard gelatin capsules showed that the drug stability was greatly increased in granules, since for raw drug, the remaining content of enalapril maleate after 91 days was 68.4% and, for granules, the content was always above 93%. This result was confirmed by the quantification of the degradation products, enalaprilat and diketopiperazine, which were found in very low content in granules samples. The results demonstrate that fluidized bed hot melt granulation with hydrophilic binders is a suitable alternative for improving the chemical stability of enalapril maleate.

Concepts: ACE inhibitor, Better, Improve, Enalapril