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Concept: Empyema

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 To determine whether the incidence of pneumonia, peritonsillar abscess, mastoiditis, empyema, meningitis, intracranial abscess, and Lemierre’s syndrome is higher in general practices that prescribe fewer antibiotics for self limiting respiratory tract infections (RTIs).

Concepts: Staphylococcus aureus, Empyema, Antiviral drug, Medicine, Epidemiology, Inflammation, Bacteria

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Acute and chronic sinusitis can give rise to a wide array of intracranial and orbital complications. These complications include brain abscess, subdural empyema, epidural abscess, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, frontal bone osteomyelitis, and orbital cellulitis and abscess. Despite numerous medical advances, these complications carry a risk of mortality and significant morbidity.

Concepts: Medicine, Empyema, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Sinusitis, Abscess, Haemophilus influenzae, Skull, Meningitis

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Few data are available on the anaerobic bacterium Eggerthia catenaformis. Here we report the first clinical case of a patient with sepsis caused by pulmonary infection with E. catenaformis, and present the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antimicrobial agents.

Concepts: Inflammation, Bacteria, Empyema, Pneumonia, Microbiology

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We present two 11-year-old girls with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, treated with adalimumab. Both developed severe intracranial complications to sinusitis. Patient 1 had been treated with adalimumab for 15 months when she developed acute sinusitis complicated by an orbital abscess, forehead swelling, a subdural empyema and osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. She was treated with a rhinosurgical and neurosurgical approach with intravenous antibiotics.Patient 2 had been in adalimumab treatment for 10 weeks. Adalimumab was discontinued 8 weeks prior to developing subdural empyema and subcortical abscesses in combination with sinusitis. She was treated with endoscopic sinus surgery and intravenous antibiotics. Both patients had developed psoriasis and episodes of infection during treatment. They were non-septic and had low fever on presentation. None of the patients suffered any long-term neurological sequelae. The immunosuppressive treatment with adalimumab is considered to be the cause of the sinogenic intracranial complications in our cases.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Empyema, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Inflammation, Skull

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Transdiaphragmatic extension of pyogenic liver abscess is the rarest cause of pericarditis and pleural empyema. It is a rapidly progressive and highly lethal infection with mortality rates reaching 100% if left untreated. However, the transmission route, treatment methods and prognosis have not been well studied.

Concepts: Pus, Empyema

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Rothia mucilaginosa (R. mucilaginosa), formerly named Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, is a facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated gram-positive coccus, which forms part of the normal oropharyngeal and is rarely considered to be a pathogen in immunocompetent patients, although it can produce, on rare occasions, serious infections like bacteremia, endocarditis and respiratory infections; such as pneumonia, pleural empyema or superinfection of bronchiectasis. We present the case of a 74-year-old male diagnosed with right basal pneumonia of torpid evolution with a poor initial response to different antibiotics, with clinical and radiological worsening and the appearance of bilateral bronchopneumonia with pseudonodular images. R. mucilaginosa in pure culture was isolated in three sputum cultures and in bronchial suction. The patient was finally treated with Linezolid with a good clinical response and normalisation of the thorax radiography, confirming the disappearance of R. mucilaginosa in subsequent sputum cultures. As there are few documented cases of pneumonia due to R. mucilaginosa, we believe that presenting this case will be of interest.

Concepts: Respiratory system, Thoracic cavity, Blood culture, Empyema, Patient, Microbiology, Pneumonia, Bacteria

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Post-pneumonectomy empyema (PPE) is the most severe complication of pneumonectomy. Microbiology and its impact on management and prognosis have rarely been reported Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the files of a series of 37 consecutive patients with PPE over a 10-year period with a special focus on microbiology, means used to treat empyema, and prognosis.

Concepts: Lung cancer, Medical terms, Empyema

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Pleural empyema is an important complication of pneumonia. Patients with stroke are at a higher risk developing pneumonia; however, the association between stroke and pleural empyema risk is largely unknown. We used the data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to establish a stroke group consisting of 466,170 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2010, and a non-stroke group consisting of the same number of individuals matched by the propensity score. Incident pleural empyema was monitored toward the end of 2011. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of pleural empyema in the stroke group, compared to the non-stroke group, were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. We found that the incidence of pleural empyema is 2.69-fold higher in the stroke group than in the non-stroke group (15.2 vs. 5.59/10,000 person-years, p < 0.001), with an aHR of 2.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.72-3.08]. Further analysis reveals the aHRs of pleural empyema to be 2.62 (95% CI = 2.45-2.79) in patients with ischemic stroke and 4.53 (95% CI = 4.14-4.95) in patients with hemorrhagic stroke compared with those without stroke. In addition, we observe that stroke patients with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt implantation exhibit more than sevenfold risk for developing of pleural empyema. In conclusion, patients with stroke are at an elevated risk of developing pleural empyema. The risk is greater for those with hemorrhagic stroke than for those with ischemic stroke. The risk increases further for patients who undergo VP shunt implantation.

Concepts: Sample size, Cohort study, Proportional hazards models, Empyema, Hazard, Hazard ratio, David Cox, Stroke

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Pleural empyema is a well-known complication of pneumonia. If treatment is delayed, empyema may increase morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Therefore, the identification of empyema biomarkers in parapneumonic pleural effusion is desirable. Previous research has suggested complement activation products as candidate empyema markers.

Concepts: Activation product, Pulmonology, Thoracentesis, Empyema, Pneumonia, Pleural effusion

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We herein report the case of a patient demonstrating a lung abscess with acute empyema which improved after performing pnemumonotomy and lung abscess drainage. A 60-year-old male was referred to our hospital to receive treatment for a lung abscess with acute empyema. At surgery, the lung parenchyma was slightly torn with pus leakage. After drainage of lung abscess by enlarging the injured part, curettage in the thoracic cavity and decortication were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Direct drainage of an abscess into the thoracic cavity is thought to be a choice for the treatment of lung abscesses.

Concepts: Lung, Heart, Empyema, Parenchyma, Surgery, Pneumonia, Pus, Abscess