Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Employee benefit


Cycling has been shown to confer considerable benefits in terms of health, leading to reductions in death rates principally due to cardiovascular improvements and adaptation. Given the disparity between the benefits of cycling on cardiovascular fitness and previous research finding that cycling may not be beneficial for bone health, Hugo Olmedillas and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature. They concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. They postulate that the cause of this is that, particularly at a competitive level, riders spend long periods of time in a weight-supported position on the bike. Training programs may be supplemented with impact loading to preserve bone health; however, the small increased risk of soft tissue injury must also be considered. See related research article

Concepts: Employee benefit, Soft tissue injury, Research, Soft tissue, Position, Academic publishing, Cycling, Tissues


Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) systems could improve glycemic control in critically ill patients. We aimed to identify the evidence on the clinical benefits and accuracy of CGM systems in these patients. For this, we performed a systematic search in Ovid MEDLINE, from inception to 26 July 2016. Outcomes were efficacy, accuracy, safety, workload and costs. Our search retrieved 356 articles, of which 37 were included. Randomized controlled trials on efficacy were scarce (n = 5) and show methodological limitations. CGM with automated insulin infusion improved time in target and mean glucose in one trial and two trials showed a decrease in hypoglycemic episodes and time in hypoglycemia. Thirty-two articles assessed accuracy, which was overall moderate to good, the latter mainly with intravascular devices. Accuracy in critically ill children seemed lower than in adults. Adverse events were rare. One study investigated the effect on workload and cost, and showed a significant reduction in both. In conclusion, studies on the efficacy and accuracy were heterogeneous and difficult to compare. There was no consistent clinical benefit in the small number of studies available. Overall accuracy was moderate to good with some intravascular devices. CGM systems seemed however safe, and might positively affect workload and costs.

Concepts: Adverse event, Employee benefit, Clinical research, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Hypoglycemia, Randomized controlled trial


Participants in Outdoor Education Programmes (OEPs) presumably benefit from these programmes in terms of their social and personal development, academic achievement and physical activity (PA). The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies about regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs, to categorise and evaluate reported outcomes, to assess the methodological quality, and to discuss possible benefits for students.

Concepts: Employee benefit, School, Learning, Evaluation, Psychology, Perl, Educational psychology, Education


Painful legs moving toes (PLMT) is a rare disorder characterized by an often-severe painful sensation in the legs associated with involuntary movement of the toes. The treatment can be challenging given the poor response to pharmacotherapy. We present a patient with PLMT who obtained substantial benefit in both pain and severity of involuntary movement with botulinum toxin type A injections for more than 3years.

Concepts: Clostridium botulinum, Employee benefit, Pain, Microbial toxins, Botulinum toxin


Radioactive iodine (RAI) is administered postoperatively to the majority of thyroid cancer patients. No available study has demonstrated any benefit in low-risk patients.

Concepts: Isotopes of iodine, Thyroid, Iodine, Employee benefit, Nuclear medicine, Radiation therapy, Oncology, Chernobyl disaster


To describe the population benefit of radiotherapy in a high-income setting if evidence-based guidelines were routinely followed.

Concepts: Employee benefit


Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a useful tool for estimating the value of an intervention in relation to alternatives. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), CEA is especially important given the high economic and clinical burden. One key driver of value is CVD mortality prevention. However, data used to inform CEA parameters can be limited, given the difficulty in demonstrating statistically significant mortality benefit in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) due in part to the frequency of fatal events and limited trial durations. In this systematic review, we identify and summarize whether published CVD-related CEAs have incorporated mortality benefits, and the methodology among those that did.

Concepts: Economics, Randomized controlled trial, Employee benefit, Statistics, Medicine, Systematic review, Clinical trial, Epidemiology


Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed.

Concepts: Educational psychology, Human behavior, Employee benefit, Motivation, Health insurance, Psychology, Weight loss, Health care


Daily aspirin reduces the long-term risk of death due to cancer. However, the short-term effect is less certain, especially in women, effects on cancer incidence are largely unknown, and the time course of risk and benefit in primary prevention is unclear. We studied cancer deaths in all trials of daily aspirin versus control and the time course of effects of low-dose aspirin on cancer incidence and other outcomes in trials in primary prevention.

Concepts: Death, Finance, Uncertainty, Epidemiology, Time, Randomized controlled trial, Employee benefit, Medical statistics


Here, we define a psychobiotic as a live organism that, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. As a class of probiotic, these bacteria are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain psychobiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, or neuroendocrine systems. So far, psychobiotics have been most extensively studied in a liaison psychiatric setting in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, where positive benefits have been reported for a number of organisms including Bifidobacterium infantis. Evidence is emerging of benefits in alleviating symptoms of depression and in chronic fatigue syndrome. Such benefits may be related to the anti-inflammatory actions of certain psychobiotics and a capacity to reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Results from large scale placebo-controlled studies are awaited.

Concepts: Syndromes, Employee benefit, Bacteria, Tricyclic antidepressant, Fibromyalgia, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Irritable bowel syndrome