Concept: Embryonic stem cell
While human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) have been studied extensively at the levels of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and epigenome our knowledge of their corresponding metabolomes is limited. Here, we present the metabolic signatures of hESCs and hESCs obtained by untargeted gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Whilst some metabolites are common to both cell types, representing the self-renewal and house-keeping signatures, others were either higher (e.g., octadecenoic acid, glycerol-3-phosphate, 4-hydroxyproline) or lower (e.g., glutamic acid, mannitol, malic acid, GABA) in hESCs (H9) compared to hECCs (NTERA2), these represent cell type specific signatures. Further, our combined results of GC-MS and microarray based gene expression profiling of undifferentiated and OCT4-depleted hESCs are consistent with the Warburg effect which is increased glycolysis in embryonic cells and tumor cells in the presence of O(2) while oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is impaired or even shut down. RNAi-based OCT4 knock down mediated differentiation resulted in the activation of the poised OXPHOS machinery by expressing missing key proteins such as NDUFC1, UQCRB and COX, increase in TCA cycle activity and decreased lactate metabolism. These results shed light on the metabolite layer of pluripotent stem cells and could potentially establish novel metabolic markers of self renewal and pluripotency.
Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is among the most common cancers in humans. These tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of cells that display varying potential for proliferation and differentiation. An important goal is identifying cells from this population that drive tumor formation. To enrich for tumor-forming cells, cancer cells were grown as spheroids in non-attached conditions. We show that spheroid-selected cells form faster growing and larger tumors in immune-compromised mice as compared to non-selected cells. Moreover, spheroid-selected cells gave rise to tumors following injection of as few as one hundred cells, suggesting these cells have enhanced tumor-forming potential. Cells isolated from spheroid-selected tumors retain an enhanced ability to grow as spheroids when grown in non-attached culture conditions. Thus, these tumor-forming cells retain their phenotype following in vivo passage as tumors. Detailed analysis reveals that spheroid-selected cultures are highly enriched for expression of epidermal stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, keratin 15, CD200, keratin 19, Oct4, Bmi-1, Ezh2 and trimethylated histone H3. These studies indicate that a subpopulation of cells that possess stem cell-like properties and express stem cell markers can be derived from human epidermal cancer cells and that these cells display enhanced ability to drive tumor formation.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders of aging, characterized by the degeneration of dopamine neurons (DA neurons) in the substantial nigra, leading to the advent of both motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms. Current treatments include electrical stimulation of the affected brain areas and dopamine replacement therapy. Even though both categories are effective in treating PD patients, the disease progression cannot be stopped. The research advance into cell therapies provides exciting potential for the treatment of PD. Current cell sources include neural stem cells (NSCs) from fetal brain tissues, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and directly induced dopamine neurons (iDA neurons). Here, we evaluate the research progress in different cell sources with a focus on using iPSCs as a valuable source and propose key challenges for developing cells suitable for large-scale clinical applications in the treatment of PD.
Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) are initiated by inactivation mutations in the APC gene, which is a negative regulator of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) inherit a germline mutation in one APC allele, and loss of the second allele leads to the development of polyps that will turn malignant if not removed. It is not fully understood which molecular mechanisms are activated by APC loss and when the loss of the second APC allele occurs.
Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.
Human lymphoblast cells from a female and male patient diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with different genotypes of a functional copy number variation (CNV) in the AD risk gene CR1 were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) employing episomal plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. The iPSCs retained the CR1 CNV, and comparative transcriptome analyses with the human embryonic stem cell line H1 revealed a Pearson correlation of 0.956 for AD1-CR10 and 0.908 for AD1-CR14.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are processes required for embryo organogenesis. Liver develops from the epithelial foregut endoderm from which the liver progenitors, hepatoblasts, are specified. The migrating hepatoblasts acquire a mesenchymal phenotype to form the liver bud. In mid-gestation, hepatoblasts mature into epithelial structures: the hepatocyte cords and biliary ducts. While EMT has been associated with liver bud formation, nothing is known about its contribution to hepatic specification. We previously established an efficient protocol from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to generate hepatic cells (Hep cells) resembling the hepatoblasts expressing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB). Here we show that Hep cells express both epithelial (EpCAM and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and SNAI-1) markers. Similar epithelial and mesenchymal hepatoblasts were identified in human and mouse fetal livers, suggesting a conserved interspecies phenotype. Knock-down experiments demonstrated the importance of SNAI-1 in Hep cell hepatic specification. Moreover, ChIP assays revealed direct binding of SNAI-1 in the promoters of AFP and ALB genes consistent with its transcriptional activator function in hepatic specification. Altogether, our hESC-derived Hep cell cultures reveal the dual mesenchymal and epithelial phenotype of hepatoblast-like cells and support the unexpected transcriptional activator role of SNAI-1 in hepatic specification.
Primary fibroblasts from a high grade steatosis patient were reprogrammed by transduction of retroviruses OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4. IPSCs were characterized by immunocytochemistry, embryoid body-formation, DNA-fingerprint, karyotype analysis and comparative transcriptome analyses with the human embryonic stem cell line H1 revealed a Pearsons correlation coefficient of 0.9287. Resource table.
Human lymphoblast cells from a female patient diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) possessing the missense mutation TREM2 p.R47H were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) employing episomal plasmids expressing OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28, c-MYC and L-MYC. The iPSCs retained the TREM2 mutation, and were defined as pluripotent based on (i) expression of pluripotent-associated markers, (ii) embryoid body-based differentiation into cell types representative of the three germ layers and (iii) the similarity between the transcriptomes of the iPSC line and the human embryonic stem cell line H1 with a Pearson correlation of 0.961.
During development, endothelial cells (EC) display tissue-specific attributes that are unique to each vascular bed, as well as generic signaling mechanisms that are broadly applied to create a patent circulatory system. We have previously utilized human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to generate tissue-specific EC sub-types (Rafii et al., 2013) and identify pathways that govern growth and trans-differentiation potential of hESC-derived ECs (James et al., 2010). Here, we elucidate a novel Notch-dependent mechanism that induces endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in confluent monolayer cultures of hESC-derived ECs. We demonstrate density-dependent induction of EndMT that can be rescued by the Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT and identify a positive feedback signaling mechanism in hESC-ECs whereby trans-activation of Notch by DLL4 ligand induces elevated expression and surface presentation of DLL4. Increased Notch activation in confluent hESC-EC monolayer cultures induces areas of EndMT containing transitional cells that are marked by increased Jagged1 expression and reduced Notch signal integration. Jagged1 loss of function in monolayer hESC-ECs induces accelerated feedback stimulation of Notch signaling, increased expression of cell-autonomous, cis-inhibitory DLL4, and EndMT. These data elucidate a novel interplay of Notch ligands in modulating pathway activation during both expansion and EndMT of hESC-derived ECs.