Concept: Electronic paper
The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers) generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink) and the liquid crystal display (LCD). Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink) and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by - on average - ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second) and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale) measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD) triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite) and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper.
A flexible electronic paper in full color is realized by plasmonic metasurfaces with conjugated polymers. An ultrathin large-area electrochromic material is presented which provides high polarization-independent reflection, strong contrast, fast response time, and long-term stability. This technology opens up for new electronic readers and posters with ultralow power consumption.
Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT) in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.
A front polarizer-free optically rewritable (ORW) liquid crystal display (LCD) has been made via a hybrid alignment configuration with dye-doped LCs. The hybrid structure consists of one optically active planar and one optically passive homeotropic alignment layer. The rewritability of the device is achieved by photo-reorienting the azo dye molecules in the active planar alignment layer. The dye is doped in LCs to function as a polarizer by following the LCs' direction via a guest-host effect so that the front polarizer can be eliminated. This makes the device more compact and easier to operate for image erasing and rewriting. The image rewriting time only requires ∼9.0 s, which is determined by the exposure energy and LC parameters. The hybrid-mode dye-doped ORW LCD devices could find applications in E-paper, transparent display, and various photonics devices.
Plasmonic structures exhibit promising applications in high-resolution and durable color generation. Research on advanced hybrid plasmonic materials that allow dynamically reconfigurable color control has developed rapidly in recent years. Some of these results may give rise to practically applicable reflective displays in living colors with high performance and low power consumption. They will attract broad interest from display markets, compared with static plasmonic color printing, for example, in applications such as digital signage, full-color electronic paper, and electronic device screens. In this progress report, the most promising recent examples of utilizing advanced plasmonic materials for the realization of dynamic color display are highlighted and put into perspective. The performances, advantages, and disadvantages of different technologies are discussed, with emphasis placed on both the potential and possible limitations of various hybrid materials for dynamic plasmonic color display.
To evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of a computer-generated Pelli-Robson test displayed on liquid crystal display (LCD) systems compared to a standard Pelli-Robson chart.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the maximum luminance (L max) level of medical liquid crystal displays (LCDs) as a function of backlight hours (BLH) annually. The L max values for 249 2-megapixel color LCDs (RadiForce RX210, EIZO Corporation) were measured in February 2014, 2015, and 2016. Four near-range luminance meters and the built-in type luminance meters, each with an LCD, were used for the measurements. The average and standard deviation (SD) of BLH measured in 2014 was 15,371 ± 8219 h. Four, twenty, and thirty-nine LCDs failed in the constancy tests performed in February 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, i.e., they were unable to output 170 cd/m(2). The SD of L max increased each year and as BLH became longer. In conclusion, evaluation of L max as a function of BLH during constancy testing will help predict the decrease in L max of a clinically used medical color LCD.
Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of surfactant-free electronic ink (E-ink) with excellent display resolution for high-definition (HD) resolution display. Herein we report the using of polydopamine-based synthetic melanin, a class of functional nanoparticles with similar chemical compositions and physical properties as naturally occurring melanin, as new E-ink materials. It was found that such E-ink display in aqueous solution could achieve ultrahigh resolution (> 10,000 ppi) and low power consumption (operation voltage of only 1V). Interestingly, simple oxidation of synthetic melanin nanoparticles enable the generation of intrinsic fluorescence, allowing the further development of fluorescent E-ink display with nanoscale resolution. We describe these bioinspired materials in an initial proof-of-concept study and propose that synthetic melanin nanoparticles will be suitable for electronic nano-ink with potential wide range of applications in molecular patterning and fluorescent bioimaging.
Perovskite ceramics and single crystals are commonly hard and brittle due to their small maximum elastic strain. Here, large-scale BaTi0.95 Co0.05 O3 (BTCO) film with a SrRuO3 (SRO) buffered layer on a 10 µm thick mica substrate is flexible with a small bending radius of 1.4 mm and semitransparent for visible light at wavelengths of 500-800 nm. Mica/SRO/BTCO/Au cells show bipolar resistive switching and the high/low resistance ratio is up to 50. The resistive-switching properties show no obvious changes after the 2.2 mm radius memory being written/erased for 360 000 cycles nor after the memory being bent to 3 mm radius for 10 000 times. Most importantly, the memory works properly at 25-180 °C or after being annealed at 500 °C. The flexible and transparent oxide resistive memory has good prospects for application in smart wearable devices and flexible display screens.
Active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) is the most widely used display technology nowadays. Transparent display is one of the emerging technologies to provide people with more features such as displaying images on transparent substrates and simultaneously enabling people to see the scenery behind the panel. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is a possible active matrix transparent display technology due to its high transparency, good visibility, and low power consumption. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with excellent mobility, high transparency, and room-temperature processing compatibility are ideal materials for the driver circuit of the PDLC display. Here, we report the monolithic integration of CNT thin-film transistor driver circuit with PDLC pixels. We studied the transmission properties of the PDLC pixels and characterized the performance of CNT thin-film transistors. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated active matrix seven-segment PDLC displays using CNT driver transistors. Our achievements open up opportunities for future nanotube-based, flexible thin-film transparent display electronics.