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Concept: Electromagnetic interference


We report the first experimental results on the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of monolayer graphene. The monolayer CVD graphene has an average SE value of 2.27 dB, corresponding to ∼40% shielding of incident waves. CVD graphene shows more than seven times (in terms of dB) greater SE than gold film. The dominant mechanism is absorption rather than reflection, and the portion of absorption decreases with an increase in the number of graphene layers. Our modeling work shows that plane-wave theory for metal shielding is also applicable to graphene. The model predicts that ideal monolayer graphene can shield as much as 97.8% of EMI. This suggests the feasibility of manufacturing an ultrathin, transparent, and flexible EMI shield by single or few-layer graphene.

Concepts: Diffraction, Photon, Electromagnetic radiation, Model theory, Wave, Model, Das Model, Electromagnetic interference


Today, we stand at the edge of exploring carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based polymer nanocomposites as next generation multifunctional materials. However, irrespective of the methods of composite preparation, development of electrical conductivity with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) value at very low loading of CNT and (or) graphene is limited due to poor dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrix. Here, we demonstrate a novel technique that involves in-situ polymerization of styrene/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the presence of suspension polymerized polystyrene (PS)/graphite nanoplate (GNP) microbeads, for the preparation of electrically conducting PS/MWCNT/GNP nanocomposites with very high (∼20.2 dB) EMI shielding value at extremely low loading of MWCNTs (∼2 wt %) and GNP (∼1.5 wt %). Finally, through optimizing the ratio of PS-GNP bead and MWCNTs in the nanocomposites, an electrical conductivity of ∼9.47 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) was achieved at GNP and MWCNTs loading of 0.29 and 0.3 wt %, respectively. The random distribution of the GNPs and MWCNTs with GNP-GNP interconnection through MWCNT in the PS matrix was the key factor in achieving high electrical conductivity and very high EMI shielding value at this low MWCNT and GNP loadings in PS/MWCNT/GNP nanocomposites. With this technique, the formation of continuous conductive network structure of CNT-GNP-CNT and the development of spatial arrangement for strong π-π interaction among the electron rich phenyl rings of PS, GNP, and MWCNT could be possible throughout the matrix phase in the nanocomposites, as evident from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

Concepts: Electron, Polymer, Carbon, Carbon nanotube, Graphite, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscope, Electromagnetic interference


We report a facile approach to produce lightweight microcellular polyetherimide (PEI)/graphene nanocomposites foams with the density of about 0.3 g/cm3 by a phase separation process. It was observed that the strong extensional flow generated during cell growth induced the enrichment and orientation of graphene on cell walls. This action decreased the electrical conductivity of microcellular PEI/graphene foams from 0.21 vol% to 0.18 vol% compared with the unfoamed counterparts. Furthermore, the foaming process significantly increased the specific electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness from 17 dB/(g/cm3) to 44 dB/(g/cm3). In addition, PEI/graphene nanocomposites foams possessed low thermal conductivity of 0.065-0.037 W/m•K even at 200 C and high Young’s modulus of 180-290 MPa.

Concepts: Bacteria, Fundamental physics concepts, Physical quantities, Thermal conductivity, Electrical conductivity, Young's modulus, Chemical engineering, Electromagnetic interference


Rapid advancements in carbon-based fillers have enabled a new and more promising platform in the development of electromagnetic attenuation composites. Alignment of fillers in composites with specific structures and morphologies has been widely pursued to achieve high performance based on taking advantage of unique filler characteristics. In this work, few-layer graphene (FLG), obtained from direct exfoliation of graphite, was fabricated into paraffin wax to prepare FLG/wax composites and investigate their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance. The as-exfoliated FLG/wax samples have shown much improved EMI performance compared to the commercial graphite/wax ones. For further improvement of EMI shielding performance, split-press-merge approaches were applied to align the FLG fillers to achieve anisotropic characteristics in the plane perpendicular to the pressing direction. Much enhanced EMI shielding performance coupled with an improvement in absorption and reflection was observed in the post-alignment FLG/wax composites. An average interparticle distance model associated with improved electrically conducting interconnection and enlarged effective reflection regions with respect to enhanced reflection efficiency were discussed. The results suggest a platform and promising opportunities for preparing high-performance EMI shielding composites.

Concepts: Paraffin, Wax, Alkane, Graphene, Plane, Electromagnetic interference, Beeswax, Candle


A lightweight graphene foam composite with a density of 0.06 g/cm(3) is developed. It shows a EMI shielding effectiveness of 30 dB and specific shielding effectiveness of 500 dB·cm(3) /g, which surpasses the best values of metals and other carbon-based composites. In addition, the excellent flexibility of this foam composite gives it a stable EMI shielding performance under repeated bending.

Concepts: Composite material, Composite video, Electromagnetic interference


Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Meyer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNWs/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20.7 dB, which meets the requirements for commercial shielding applications. A superior EMI SE of 31.3 dB could be achieved, whereas the transparent film still maintains a transmittance of 81%. The integrated efficient EMI SE and high transmittance is superior to most previously reported transparent EMI shielding materials. Moreover, our transparent films exhibit a highly reliable shielding ability in a complex service environment, with 98% and 96% EMI SE retentions even after 30 min of ultrasound treatment and 5000 bending cycles (1.5-mm radius), respectively. The comprehensive performance that is associated with the facile fabrication strategy imparts the CA/AgNW/PU film with great potential as an optimized EMI shielding material in emerging optoelectronic devices, such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

Concepts: Diffraction, Semiconductor, Nanowire, Wave, Solar cell, Photodiode, Photonics, Electromagnetic interference


There have been concerns that Electromagnetic security systems such as walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) can potentially cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in certain active medical devices including implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable neurostimulators. Incidents of EMI between WTMDs and active medical devices also known as personal medical electronic devices (PMED) continue to be reported. This paper reports on emission measurements of sample WTMDs and testing of 20 PMEDs in a WTMD simulation system.

Concepts: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Engineering, Measuring instruments, Artificial pacemaker, Airport security, Electromagnetic interference


Materials with good flexibility and high conductivity that can provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding with minimal thickness are highly desirable, especially if they can be easily processed into films. Two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes, combine metallic conductivity and hydrophilic surfaces. Here, we demonstrate the potential of several MXenes and their polymer composites for EMI shielding. A 45-micrometer-thick Ti3C2Tx film exhibited EMI shielding effectiveness of 92 decibels (>50 decibels for a 2.5-micrometer film), which is the highest among synthetic materials of comparable thickness produced to date. This performance originates from the excellent electrical conductivity of Ti3C2Tx films (4600 Siemens per centimeter) and multiple internal reflections from Ti3C2Tx flakes in free-standing films. The mechanical flexibility and easy coating capability offered by MXenes and their composites enable them to shield surfaces of any shape while providing high EMI shielding efficiency.

Concepts: Metal, Molybdenum, Silver, Electrical conductivity, Electromagnetic interference


The gap of standardization for conducted and field coupled electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the 2-150 kHz frequency range can lead to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) problems. This is caused by power systems such as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controlled rectifiers, photovoltaic inverters or charging battery units in electric vehicles. This is a very important frequency spectral due to interferences generated in a wide range of devices and, specifically, communication problems in the new technologies and devices incorporated to the traditional grid to convert it into a Smart Grid. Consequently, it is necessary to provide new solutions to attenuate this kind of interference, which involves finding new materials that are able to filter the electromagnetic noise. This contribution is focused on characterizing the performance of a novel material based on nanocrystalline and comparing it to most common material compositions such as MnZn and NiZn. This research is carried out from the point of view of the manufacturing process, magnetic properties and EMI suppression ability. This last item is carried out through two analysis procedures: a theoretical method by determining the attenuation ratio by measuring impedance parameter and proposing a new empirical technique based on measuring directly the insertion loss parameter. Therefore, the main aim of this characterization process is to determine the performance of nanocrystalline compared to traditional cable ferrite compositions to reduce the interferences in this controversial frequency range. From the results obtained, it is possible to deduce that nanocrystalline cable ferrite provides the best performance to filter the electromagnetic noise in the 2-150 kHz frequency range.

Concepts: Electromagnetic radiation, Materials science, Frequency, Hertz, Wavelength, Sound, Electromagnetic interference, Pulse-width modulation


The creation of stiff yet multifunctional three dimensional porous carbon architecture at very low cost is still challenging so far. In this work, lightweight and stiff carbon bread (CB) with adjustable pore structure was prepared by using flour as basic element via a simple fermentation and carbonization process. The compressive strength of CB exhibit a high value of 3.6 MPa while its density is 0.29 g/cm3 (compressive modulus can be 121 MPa). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness measurements (specific EMI shielding effectiveness can be 78.18 dB•cm3•g-1) indicated that CB can be used as lightweight, effective shielding material. Unlike ordinary foam structure materials, the low thermal conductivity (lowest is 0.06 W/m•K) with high resistance to fire makes CB a good candidate for commercial thermal insulation material. These results demonstrate a promising method to fabricate an economical, robust carbon material for applications in industry as well as topics regarding environmental protection and improvement of energy efficiency.

Concepts: Heat, Materials science, Young's modulus, Heat transfer, Aerogel, Electromagnetic interference, Thermal insulation, R-value