SciCombinator

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Concept: Elderly care

138

Prior literature on illness management within intimate relationships demonstrates a variety of benefits from supportive partnership. Indeed, much of the earliest research in this field engaged older adults with and without chronic conditions. However, this pioneering literature gave little consideration to relationships in which multiple partners were coping with chronic illness. By contrast, the majority of published manuscripts presented a “sick partner/well partner” model in which caregiving flowed only in one direction. Yet this idea makes little sense in the context of contemporaneous data on population aging and health as a majority of older adults now live with at least one chronic condition. Scholars still have not delved explicitly into the experiences of the vast population of older relationship partners who are managing chronic conditions simultaneously. We thus welcome Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine readers to this special content collection on Aging Partners Managing Chronic Illness Together.

Concepts: Medicine, Gerontology, Old age, Interpersonal relationship, Ageing, Aging, Geriatrics, Elderly care

47

Comfort is frequently ranked important for a good death. Although rising numbers of people are dying in very old age, many with dementia, little is known about symptom control for “older old” people or whether care in different settings enables them to die comfortably. This study aims to examine, in a population-representative sample, associations between factors potentially related to reported comfort during very old people’s final illness: physical and cognitive disability, place of care and transitions in their final illness, and place of death.

Concepts: Death, Middle age, Gerontology, Old age, Ageing, Geriatrics, Retirement, Elderly care

27

Depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders in older people, known to increase rates of disability and mortality. Depression in late life, commonly accompanied by multiple medical illnesses, reduces quality of life and is a strong risk factor for suicide. Despite its clinical significance, depression remains underdiagnosed and inadequately treated in older patients. Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies have the most empirical support in treating late-life depression, and are recommended by numerous guidelines in this indication. Group interventions are also recommended for older adults because they offer peer support, mitigate social isolation, encourage shared empathy and provide a context for peer feedback help from the group. Previous studies have shown that maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of depression and anxiety in older people, either as risk factors or as vulnerability markers, but there are no studies that have examined the effectiveness of schema-focused therapy to improve depression in late life.

Concepts: Psychology, Death, Middle age, Sociology, Illness, Gerontology, Old age, Elderly care

25

One of the major reasons why the elderly lose their ability to live independently at home is the decline in gait performance. A measure to assess gait performance using accelerometers is step counting. The main problem with most step detection algorithms is the loss of accuracy at low speeds (<0.8 m/s) which limits their use in frail elderly populations. In this paper, a step detection algorithm was developed and validated using data from 10 healthy adults and 21 institutionalized seniors, predominantly frail older adults. Data were recorded using a single waist-worn triaxial accelerometer as each of the subjects performed one 10 meter walk trial. The algorithm demonstrated high mean sensitivity (991%) for gait speeds between 0.2- 1.5 m/s. False positives were evaluated with a series of motion activities performed by one subject. These activities simulate acceleration patterns similar to those generated near the body's center of mass while walking in terms of amplitud signal and periodicity. Cycling was the activity which led to a higher number of false positives. By applying template matching, we reduced by 73% the number of false positives in the cycling activity and eliminated all false positives in the rest of activities. Using K-means clustering, we obtained two different characteristic step patterns, one for normal and one for frail walking, where particular gait events related to limb impacts and muscle flexions were recognized. The proposed system can help to identify seniors at high risk of functional decline and monitor the progress of patients undergoing exercise therapy interventions.

Concepts: Algorithm, Middle age, Gerontology, Old age, Machine learning, Walking, Elderly care

17

Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates - an important and not easily contractible quality dimension - using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates.

Concepts: Statistics, Dimension, Geriatrics, Elderly care, Poland, Public services, Privatization, Public ownership

14

Given the rising population of the elderly in modern societies, the concern for their good functioning poses a challenge for the 21st century medicine and social services. Senior citizens are at an increased risk of developing chronic conditions, which in turn increase discomfort associated with physiological processes of aging. Sensations of pain have a particular influence on the mentioned discomfort, and pain is prevalent among older people. Therefore, from the perspective of an elderly person and senior care, it is crucial to identify determinants of effective coping with chronic pain.

Concepts: Medicine, Sociology, Gerontology, Old age, Ageing, Geriatrics, Elderly care

7

Targeted deprescribing of anticholinergic and sedative medicines can lead to positive health outcomes in older people; as they have been associated with cognitive and physical functioning decline. This study will examine whether the proposed intervention is feasible at reducing the prescription of anticholinergic and sedative medicines in older people.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Gerontology, Old age, Ageing, Geriatrics, Elderly care

6

Multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and cognitive impairment leave many old patients in a frail condition with a high risk of adverse outcomes if proper health care is not provided. Knowledge about available competence is necessary to evaluate whether we are able to offer equitable and balanced health care to older persons with acute and/or complex health care needs. This study investigates the sufficiency of nursing staff competence in Norwegian community elderly care.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health, Illness, Old age, Nursing, Geriatrics, Elderly care

4

The objective of the current study was to understand the added effects of having a sensory impairment (vision and/or hearing impairment) in combination with cognitive impairment with respect to health-related outcomes among older adults (65+ years old) receiving home care or residing in a long-term care (LTC) facility in Ontario, Canada.

Concepts: Brain, Cognition, Old age, Perception, Knowledge, Geriatrics, The Current, Elderly care

4

The purpose of this study is to identify which variables –among those commonly available and used in the primary care setting– best predict mortality in a cohort of elderly dependent patients living at home (EDPLH) that were included in a home care program provided by Primary Care Teams (PCT). Additionally, we explored the risk of death among a sub-group of these patients that were admitted to hospital the year before they entered the home care program.

Concepts: Death, Hospital, Demography, Actuarial science, Prediction, Geriatrics, Elderly care, Primary care physician