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Concept: Eicosanoid

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Inflammation is an important component of normal responses to infection and injury. However, chronic activation of the immune system, due to aberrant responses to normal stimuli, can lead to the establishment of a persistent inflammatory state. Such inflammatory conditions are often debilitating, and are associated with a number of important co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease. Resting non-proliferative tissues have distinctive metabolic activities and requirements, which differ considerably from those in infiltrating immune cells, which are undergoing proliferation and differentiation. Immune responses in tissues may therefore be modulated by the relative abundance of substrates in the inflamed site. In turn immune cell activity can feed back and affect metabolic behaviour of the tissues, as most clearly demonstrated in cachexia - the loss of cellular mass driven by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a key mediator of the inflammatory response. Here we discuss the potential for metabolomic analysis to clarify the interactions between inflammation and metabolic changes underlying many diseases. We suggest that an increased understanding of the interaction between inflammation and cellular metabolism, energy substrate use, tissue breakdown markers, the microbiome and drug metabolites, may provide novel insight into the regulation of inflammatory diseases.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Monocyte, Metabolism, Enzyme, Asthma, Infection, Eicosanoid

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BACKGROUND & AIMS: The endocannabinoid and eicosanoid lipid signaling pathways have important roles in inflammatory syndromes. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) links these pathways, hydrolyzing the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol to generate the arachidonic acid precursor pool for prostaglandin production. We investigated whether blocking MAGL protects against inflammation and damage from hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and other insults. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of hepatic I/R in mice given the selective MAGL inhibitor JZL184, in Mgll-/-mice, FAAH-/- mice, and in Cnr1(-/-)and Cnr2(-/-)mice, which have disruptions in the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB(½)). Liver tissues were collected and analyzed, along with cultured hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. We measured endocannabinoids, eicosanoids, and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death using molecular biology, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry analyses. RESULTS: Wild-type mice given JZL184 and Mgll-/- mice were protected from hepatic I/R injury by a mechanism that involved increased endocannabinoid signaling via CB(2) and reduced production of eicosanoids in the liver. JZL184 suppressed the inflammation and oxidative stress that mediate hepatic I/R injury. Hepatocytes were the major source of hepatic MAGL activity and endocannabinoid and eicosanoid production. JZL184 also protected from induction of liver injury by D-(+)-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharides or CCl(4). CONCLUSIONS: MAGL promotes hepatic injury via endocannabinoid and eicosanoid signaling; blockade of this pathway protects mice from liver injury. MAGL inhibitors might be developed to treat for conditions that expose the liver to oxidative stress and inflammatory damage.

Concepts: Inflammation, Liver, Lipid, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin, Leukotriene, Arachidonic acid, Monoacylglycerol lipase

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Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a tumor of the serous membranes linked to exposure to asbestos. A chronic inflammatory response orchestrated by mesothelial cells contributes to the development and progression of MM. The evidence that: (a) multiple signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in MM cells; (b) asbestos mediated-chronic inflammation has a key role in MM carcinogenesis; © the deregulation of the immune system might favor the development of MM; and (d) a drug might have a better efficacy when injected into a serous cavity thus bypassing biotransformation and reaching an effective dose has prompted investigations to evaluate the effects of polyphenols for the therapy and prevention of MM. Dietary polyphenols are able to inhibit cancer cell growth by targeting multiple signaling pathways, reducing inflammation, and modulating immune response. The ability of polyphenols to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory molecules by targeting signaling pathways or ROS might represent a key mechanism to prevent and/or to contrast the development of MM. In this review, we will report the current knowledge on the ability of polyphenols to modulate the immune system and production of mediators of inflammation, thus revealing an important tool in preventing and/or counteracting the growth of MM.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Cancer, Bacteria, Signal transduction, Asthma, Mesothelioma, Eicosanoid

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Skeletal muscles harbor quiescent muscle-specific stem cells (MuSCs) capable of tissue regeneration throughout life. Muscle injury precipitates a complex inflammatory response in which a multiplicity of cell types, cytokines, and growth factors participate. Here we show that Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an inflammatory cytokine that directly targets MuSCs via the EP4 receptor, leading to MuSC expansion. An acute treatment with PGE2 suffices to robustly augment muscle regeneration by either endogenous or transplanted MuSCs. Loss of PGE2 signaling by specific genetic ablation of the EP4 receptor in MuSCs impairs regeneration, leading to decreased muscle force. Inhibition of PGE2 production through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration just after injury similarly hinders regeneration and compromises muscle strength. Mechanistically, the PGE2 EP4 interaction causes MuSC expansion by triggering a cAMP/phosphoCREB pathway that activates the proliferation-inducing transcription factor, Nurr1 Our findings reveal that loss of PGE2 signaling to MuSCs during recovery from injury impedes muscle repair and strength. Through such gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we found that PGE2 signaling acts as a rheostat for muscle stem-cell function. Decreased PGE2 signaling due to NSAIDs or increased PGE2 due to exogenous delivery dictates MuSC function, which determines the outcome of regeneration. The markedly enhanced and accelerated repair of damaged muscles following intramuscular delivery of PGE2 suggests a previously unrecognized indication for this therapeutic agent.

Concepts: Developmental biology, Cellular differentiation, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Eicosanoid

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Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013-2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Innate immune system, Infection, Eicosanoid

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex responsible for the processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. Here we show that several clinically approved and widely used NSAIDs of the fenamate class are effective and selective inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome via inhibition of the volume-regulated anion channel in macrophages, independently of COX enzymes. Flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid are efficacious in NLRP3-dependent rodent models of inflammation in air pouch and peritoneum. We also show therapeutic effects of fenamates using a model of amyloid beta induced memory loss and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. These data suggest that fenamate NSAIDs could be repurposed as NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and Alzheimer’s disease therapeutics.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Inflammation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Cyclooxygenase, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Eicosanoid

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Injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in equine athletes, but the healing response is poorly understood. One important drive for the healing of connective tissues is the inflammatory cascade, but the role of inflammation in tendinopathy has been contentious in the literature. This article reviews the processes involved in the healing of tendon injuries in natural disease and experimental models. The importance of inflammatory processes known to be active in tendon disease is discussed with particular focus on recent findings related specifically to the horse. Whilst inflammation is necessary for debridement after injury, persistent inflammation is thought to drive fibrosis, a perceived adverse consequence of tendon healing. Therefore the ability to resolve inflammation by the resident cell populations in tendons at an appropriate time would be crucial for successful outcome. This review summarises new evidence for the importance of resolution of inflammation after tendon injury. Given that many anti-inflammatory drugs suppress both inflammatory and resolving components of the inflammatory response, prolonged use of these drugs may be contraindicated as a therapeutic approach. We propose that these findings have profound implications not only for current treatment strategies but also for the possibility of developing novel therapeutic approaches involving modulation of the inflammatory process.

Concepts: Inflammation, Collagen, Extracellular matrix, Rheumatoid arthritis, Anti-inflammatory, Necrosis, Eicosanoid, Tendon

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Prostaglandins (PG) are the product of a cascade of enzymes such as cyclooxygenases and PG synthases. Among PG, PGE2 is produced by 3 isoforms of PGE synthase (PGES) and through activation of its cognate receptors (EP1-4), this PG is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. Some anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) interfere with its metabolism or effects. Vascular cells can initiate many of the responses associated with inflammation. In human vascular tissue, PGE2 is involved in many physiological processes, such as increasing vascular permeability, cell proliferation, cell migration and control of vascular smooth muscle tone. PGE2 has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm but also in physiologic/adaptive processes such as angiogenesis. Understanding the roles of PGE2 and its cognate receptors in vascular diseases could help to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, from these recent studies new promising therapeutic approaches like mPGES-1 inhibition and/or EP4-antagonism should be investigated.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cyclooxygenase, Glucocorticoid, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin

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Smoking is associated with worse asthma outcomes and may modify airway inflammation. Such modification may be mediated through an effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cyst-LTs).

Concepts: Inflammation, Asthma, Fever, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin, Leukotriene, Prostaglandins

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Introduction: Cytochromes P450 (P450) and associated monooxygenases are a family of heme proteins involved in metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid, eicosanoids and prostaglandins) as also xenobiotics including drugs and environmental chemicals. Liver is the major organ involved in P450-mediated metabolism and hepatic enzymes have been characterized. Extrahepatic organs, such as lung, kidney and brain have the capability for biotransformation through P450 enzymes. Brain, including human brain, expresses P450 enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Areas covered: An overview of P450-mediated metabolism in brain is presented focusing on distinct differences seen in expression of P450 enzymes, generation of unique P450 enzymes in brain through alternate splicing and their consequences in terms of metabolism of psychoactive drugs and inflammatory prompts, such as leukotrienes, thus modulating inflammatory response. Expert opinion: The brain possesses unique P450s that metabolize drugs and endogenous compounds through pathways that are markedly different from that seen in liver indicating that extrapolation directly from liver to brain is not appropriate. It is therefore necessary to characterize the unique brain P450s and their ability to metabolize xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to better understand the functions of this important class of enzymes in brain, especially human brain.

Concepts: Inflammation, Brain, Metabolism, Cytochrome P450, Eicosanoid, Prostaglandin, Leukotriene, Arachidonic acid