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Concept: Eggplant


To explore whether improvements in psychological well-being occur after increases in fruit and vegetable consumption.

Concepts: Pea, Cucumber, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable


Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by Artificial Neural Network Inference Analysis (ANN) and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato-fruit gene-regulatory network was generated using ANN and transcription-factor gene-expression profiles (Tfs) derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the Tfs with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild type tomato fruits and, when over expressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area and pigment content; enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines over expressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the over-expression lines providing a link between expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative orthologue of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

Concepts: Eggplant, Ripening, Solanaceae, Vegetable, Gene expression, Ethylene, Tomato, Fruit


Residents of some low-income neighborhoods have limited access to fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2008, New York City issued new mobile fruit and vegetable cart licenses for neighborhoods with inadequate availability of fresh produce. Some of these carts were equipped with electronic benefit transfer (EBT) machines, allowing them to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits. This article examines the association between type and quantities of fruits and vegetables purchased from mobile fruit and vegetable vendors and consumer characteristics, including payment method.

Concepts: Cucumber, Toronto, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, New York City, Vegetable


Governments worldwide recommend daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. We examine whether this benefits health in the general population of England.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cucumber, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable, Nutrition


Is consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues associated with lower semen quality?

Concepts: Pea, Cucumber, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable


The nightshade family Solanaceae holds exceptional economic and cultural importance. The early diversification of Solanaceae is thought to have occurred in South America during its separation from Gondwana, but the family’s sparse fossil record provides few insights. We report 52.2-million-year-old lantern fruits from terminal-Gondwanan Patagonia, featuring highly inflated, five-lobed calyces, as a newly identified species of the derived, diverse New World genus Physalis (e.g., groundcherries and tomatillos). The fossils are considerably older than corresponding molecular divergence dates and demonstrate an ancient history for the inflated calyx syndrome. The derived position of these early Eocene fossils shows that Solanaceae were well diversified long before final Gondwanan breakup.

Concepts: Cambrian, Charles Darwin, Tomatillo, Dinosaur, Eggplant, Tomato, Solanaceae, Eocene


Most children do not meet daily recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake, and consumption of vegetables remains especially low. Eating habits track from childhood to adulthood hence establishing liking and intake of vegetables is important.

Concepts: Pea, Cucumber, Nutrition, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable


There is growing evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality. Few studies, however, specifically explored consuming raw versus cooked vegetables in relation to health and mortality outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of all-cause mortality with: a) fruit and vegetable consumption, either combined or separately; b) the consumption of raw versus cooked vegetables in a large cohort of Australian middle-aged and older adults.

Concepts: Cucumber, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Cooking, Tomato, Fruit, Nutrition, Vegetable


Direct-to-consumer marketing efforts, such as community-supported agriculture (CSA), have been proposed as a solution for disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption. Evaluations of such efforts have been limited. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a CSA intervention to increase household inventory of fruits and vegetables and fruit and vegetable consumption of residents of an underresourced community.

Concepts: Pea, Cucumber, Eggplant, Vegetarian cuisine, Tomato, Vegetable, Fruit


The brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable species worldwide, while African eggplants (S. aethiopicum L., S. macrocarpon L.) are indigenous vegetable species of local significance. Taxonomy of eggplants and their wild relatives is complicated and still unclear. Hence, the objective of the study was to clarify taxonomic position of cultivars and landraces of brinjal, its wild relatives and African eggplant species and their wild ancestors using chemotaxonomic markers and multivariate analysis techniques for data processing, with special attention paid to the recognition of markers characteristic for each group of the plants. The total of 34 accessions belonging to 9 species from genus Solanum L. were used in the study. Chemotaxonomic analysis was based on the profiles of cuticular n-alkanes and methylalkanes, obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Standard hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for the classification, while the latter and two-way HCA allowed to identify markers responsible for the clustering of the species. Cultivars, landraces and wild forms of S. melongena were practically identical in terms of their taxonomic position. The results confirmed high and statistically significant distinctiveness of all African eggplant species from the brinjal eggplant. The latter was characterized mostly by abundant long chain hydrocarbons in the range of 34-37 carbon atoms. The differences between both African eggplant species were, however, also statistically significant; S. aethiopicum displayed the highest contribution of 2-methylalkanes to the total cuticular hydrocarbons, while S. macrocarpon was characterized by elevated n-alkanes in the range of 25-32 carbon atoms. Wild ancestors of both African eggplant species were identical with their cultivated relatives. Concluding, high usefulness of the chemotaxonomic approach in classification of this important group of plants was confirmed.

Concepts: Turkish cuisine, Greek cuisine, Vegetable, Solanaceae, Fruit, Tomato, Eggplant, Solanum