SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Eczema

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Atopic eczema (AE) is characterized by skin barrier and immune dysfunction. Null mutations in filaggrin (FLG), a key epidermal barrier protein, strongly predispose to AE; however, the precise role of FLG deficiency in AE pathogenesis remains incompletely understood.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Proteins, Proteomics, Autoimmune diseases, Eczema, Psoriasis

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Food allergy prevalence is reported to be increasing, but epidemiological data using patients' electronic health records (EHRs) remain sparse.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Asthma, Allergy, Food allergy, Eczema, Electronic health record, Allergology, Oral allergy syndrome

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BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has shown that pediatric food allergy is more prevalent in regions further from the equator, suggesting that vitamin D insufficiency may play a role in this disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of vitamin D status in infantile food allergy. METHODS: A population sample of 5276 one-year-old infants underwent skin prick testing to peanut, egg, sesame, and cow’s milk or shrimp. All those with a detectable wheal and a random sample of participants with negative skin prick test results attended a hospital-based food challenge clinic. Blood samples were available for 577 infants (344 with challenge-proven food allergy, 74 sensitized but tolerant to food challenge, 159 negative on skin prick test and food challenge). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and food allergy were examined by using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for potential risk and confounding factors. RESULTS: Infants of Australian-born parents, but not of parents born overseas, with vitamin D insufficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were more likely to be peanut (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.51; 95% CI, 2.01-65.79; P = .006) and/or egg (aOR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.19-12.08; P = .025) allergic than were those with adequate vitamin D levels independent of eczema status. Among those with Australian-born parents, infants with vitamin D insufficiency were more likely to have multiple food allergies (≥2) rather than a single food allergy (aOR, 10.48; 95% CI, 1.60-68.61 vs aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.38-8.77, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first direct evidence that vitamin D sufficiency may be an important protective factor for food allergy in the first year of life.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Asthma, Egg, Milk, Allergy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology

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Early introduction of dietary peanut in high-risk infants with severe eczema and/or egg allergy prevented peanut allergy at 5 years of age in the LEAP Study; the protective effect persisted after 12 months of avoiding peanuts in the LEAP-On Study. It is unclear whether this benefit is allergen and allergic-disease specific.

Concepts: Asthma, Immunology, Allergy, Atopy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Peanut

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Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly which can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potentials in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection and cosmetic products. The current article comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

Concepts: Immune system, Gut flora, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Skin, Eczema

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Abstract The Goeckerman regimen, consisting of the application of crude coal tar combined with exposure to ultraviolet radiation, was formulated in 1925 for the treatment of psoriasis. While some centers have adapted the Goeckerman regimen for the treatment of eczema, there are no published reports of its efficacy in this condition. Here, we explain how the Goeckerman regimen has been modified for use in an eczema population at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). We reviewed the treatment records of eczema patients treated with the modified Goeckerman regimen over a 6-year period at UCSF. We found that the Goeckerman regimen was effective in treating patients with severe baseline disease, inducing a mean remission period of 7.2 months. The treatment was tolerated well with mild folliculitis and occasional ultraviolet B phototoxicity noted as the only adverse reactions. Since the use of Goeckerman as a treatment for severe eczema is both effective and safe, it should be considered an excellent alternative or adjunct to the systemic therapies currently being used.

Concepts: Cancer, Ultraviolet, Electromagnetic spectrum, Sunlight, Eczema, Psoriasis, Psoralen, Coal tar

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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened an expert, ad hoc committee to examine critical issues related to food allergy. The authors of the resulting report, “Finding a Path to Safety in Food Allergy: Assessment of the Global Burden, Causes, Prevention, Management, and Public Policy,” evaluated the scientific evidence on the prevalence, diagnosis, prevention, and management of food allergy and made recommendations to bring about a safe environment for those affected. The committee recommended approaches to monitor prevalence, explore risk factors, improve diagnosis, and provide evidence-based health care. Regarding diagnostics, emphasis was placed on utilizing allergy tests judiciously in the context of the medical history because positive test results are not, in isolation, diagnostic. Evidence-based prevention strategies were advised (for example, a strategy to prevent peanut allergy through early dietary introduction). The report encourages improved education of stakeholders for recognizing and managing as well as preventing allergic reactions, including an emphasis on using intramuscular epinephrine promptly to treat anaphylaxis. The report recommends improved food allergen labeling and evaluation of the need for epinephrine autoinjectors with a dosage appropriate for infants. The committee recommended policies and guidelines to prevent and treat food allergic reactions in a various settings and suggested research priorities to address key questions about diagnostics, mechanisms, risk determinants, and management. Identifying safe and effective therapies is the ultimate goal. This article summarizes the key findings from the report and emphasizes recommendations for actions that are applicable to pediatricians and to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Concepts: Medicine, Asthma, Allergy, Mast cell, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Allergen immunotherapy

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) is the main cause of primary food allergy in adults living in the Mediterranean area. The way allergic patients get sensitized to this protein is all but established, and the clinical expression of sensitization is extremely variable, ranging from long-lasting symptomless sensitization to severe anaphylaxis. Such variability is seemingly due to the presence/absence of a number of cofactors. RECENT FINDINGS: The possibility that LTP sensitization occurs via the inhalation of LTP-containing pollen particles seems unlikely; in contrast, peach particles containing the protein seem able to sensitize both via the airways and the skin. Cosensitization to pollen allergens as well as to labile plant food allergens makes LTP allergy syndrome less severe. In some LTP sensitized subjects clinical food allergy occurs only in the presence of cofactors such as exercise, NSAIDs, or chronic urticaria. SUMMARY: Lipid transfer protein allergy syndrome shows some peculiarities that are unique in the primary food allergy panorama: geographical distribution, frequent asymptomatic sensitization, frequent need for cofactors, and reduced severity when pollen allergy is present. Future studies will have to address these points as the results may have favorable effects on other, more severe, types of food allergy.

Concepts: Asthma, Allergy, Food allergy, Eczema, Allergology, Allergen immunotherapy, Sensitization, Eric Kandel

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Single BCG vaccination has been considered as a protective factor against asthma. However the effect of a second dose of BCG on the prevalence rate of asthma and asthma-allergic rhinitis-eczema comorbidity has not been studied exclusively among adolescents. In this ISAAC protocol-based cross sectional study we assessed the association between one single versus two doses of BCG among 2213 individuals aged 13-14 years old. We found no association between BCG revaccination and asthma, associated (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.37-1.25) or not to allergic rhinitis and/or atopic eczema (OR = 1.07, 95% CI, 0.84-1.36).

Concepts: Immune system, Asthma, Medical statistics, Allergy, Atopy, Allergen, Eczema, Rhinitis